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Networking Fundamentals

Networking Fundamentals

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Networking Fundamentals

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  1. Networking Fundamentals Introduction and OSI model

  2. OSI ModelA Layered Approach To Manage Complexity • Application Layer • Presentation Layer • Session Layer • Transport Layer • Network Layer • Data Link Layer • Physical Layer

  3. Introduction Classifications

  4. Classifications • LAN • Local Area Network • WAN • Wide Area Network • PAN • Personal Area Network • MAN • Metropolitan Area Network

  5. Introduction Topologies

  6. Topologies • Bus • Star • Ring • Mesh • Wireless • Hybrid

  7. Introduction Network Models

  8. Network Models • Client/Server • Peer-to-Peer

  9. Introduction Protocols

  10. Protocols • TCP/IP • FIR • ATM • LLDP • NetBIOS & NetBEUI • HTTP • FTP • SMTP

  11. Introduction Devices

  12. Devices • Media / Converters • NIC • Network Interface Card • Repeater • Hub • Gateway • Bridge • Switch • Router

  13. Hub • Physical Layer • Box with lots of Ethernet connection sockets • Repeats messages to all connected nodes • Generates wasted traffic • Nodes must filter messages intended for them • Cheapest way to connect devices

  14. Bridge • Data Link Layer • Single incoming and outgoing ports • Keeps MAC address tables for two LAN segments • Filters traffic using the MAC address

  15. Switch • Connects all nodes to each other like a hub • Examines Ethernet messages for destination MAC address • Intelligently relays messages toward destination • More expensive than hubs • Can be combined with hubs

  16. Router • Network Layer • A router connects to two different networks Ex: LAN to WAN (internet) • Routers maintain a so-called routing table to keep track of routes • Without routers the internet could not function • Uses the IP address to forward packets

  17. Gateway • Application Layer down to network layer • Connect and translate data between networks with different protocols or architecture • For instance, allowing communication between TCP/IP clients and IPX/SPX or AppleTalk • A gateway links two systems that do not use the same: • Communication protocols • Data formatting structures • Languages • Architecture

  18. Introduction Standards Groups

  19. Standards Groups • IEEE • ISO • W3C • CERN • UL • EIA • TIA • ANSI

  20. Standards Groups • IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers • ISO International Organization for Standardization • W3C World Wide Web Consortium • CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research • UL Underwriters Laboratories • EIA Energy Information Administration • TIA Telecommunications Industry Association • ANSI American National Standards Institute

  21. Introduction OSI MODEL

  22. OSI MODEL • Application • Presentation • Session • Transport • Network • Data Link • Physical Mnemonics to Remember Top Down: A Perfectly Simple Technology Narrowed Down Physically All People Seem To Need Data Processing All Pros Search Top Notch Donut Places Bottom Up: Programmers Like Networks That Seldom Postpone Anything* Programmers Dare Not Throw Salty Pretzels Away Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away Please Do Not Tell Sales People Anything People Don’t Need To See Paula Abdul People Desperately Need To See Pamela Anderson Paula Did Networking 'TilShe Passed Away * Uses L for Link layer rather than D for Data Link