Networking Fundamentals Copper Core Cable as Network Media
Medium: Copper Signals
Analog and Digital Signals • Frequency - repeating event per unit time • Hz or Hertz – cycles per second, unit of frequency • Attenuation - A gradual loss of any kind through a medium by time/distance • Interference - the combination of two or more electromagnetic waveforms to form a resultant wave • Latency - a measure of time delay experienced in a system
Medium Copper Data Transmission
Data Transmission • Bandwidth – two definitions • width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission medium (usually in hertz, hz) • data transfer rate (usually in bits per second, bps) • Baseband - a single unmultiplexed signal • Broadband - multiple signals and traffic types
Data Transmission • Simplex – one way • Duplex – two way • Full-Duplex – all the time • Half Duplex – one at a time
Signal Encoding, Digitization • Frequency Shift Keying - FSK • Amplitude Shift Keying - ASK • Phase Shift Keying - PSK • QPSK • QAM64
Medium Copper Important Electronic Terms
Electronic Terms • Direct Current the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries. • Alternating Current the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction.
Electronic Terms • Resistance (DC) the opposition to the passage of an electric current (DC) through that conductor. • Impedance (AC) the opposition that a circuit presents to a current (AC) when a voltage is applied.
Electronic Terms • Reflected Loss the loss of signal power resulting from the reflection caused at a discontinuity. • Crosstalk phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.
Electronic Terms • Induction a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges. • Decibel A unit used to express relative difference in power or intensity, usually between two acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two levels
Crosstalk • Near-End • Far-End • Equal Level Far-End • Alien Crosstalk
Medium Copper Copper Core Cables
Copper Core Cables • Coaxial Cable • Twisted Pair
Medium Copper IEEE 802.3 - Ethernet
IEEE 802 • 802 Network Standard • 802.1 Internetworking • 802.2 Logical Link Control • 802.3 Ethernet over copper cabling • 802.11 Wireless • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802
IEEE 802.3 Standard (1000+pages) • Classifications10BaseT 10 Mbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat5) 100BaseTX 100 Mbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat5) 1000BaseT 1000 Mbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat5e) 10GBaseT 10 Gbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat6) • Media Access CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection • Wiring and Connections568A 568B RJ-45 Connector Straight-Through (Patch) Crossover Auto-MDIX – Automatic Medium-Dependent Interface Crossover
Medium Copper IEEE 802.5
IEEE 802.5 Standard • 802.5 Token Ring • MAU – Multiple Access Unit
Medium Copper Wiring Faults
Wiring Faults • Short – Bad connection • Open – Break in connection • Ground – Connects to Earth • Reversed – Reversed Pair • Crossed – Crossed pair • Split Pairs – Split Pair
Medium Copper Etc.
Etc • Etc