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Absolutism in Western and Eastern Europe

Absolutism in Western and Eastern Europe

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Absolutism in Western and Eastern Europe

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  1. Absolutism in Western and Eastern Europe Ch. 17: Emergence of the European State System

  2. Absolutism Characteristics: • Absolute monarchs not subordinate to national assemblies • Nobility reigned in • Bureaucrats (17th C.) were career officials and answered only to monarch • Maintained large standing armies even during peacetime

  3. Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) L’etat, c’est moi Louis XIV, 1701 by Rigaud • Personified sovereignty of state resided in ruler • Quintessential absolutist and advocate of Divine Right • “the Sun King” • France became undisputed major power during his reign • French language became international language • France epicenter of literature and art

  4. VersaillesBaroque Architecture: Marquis Louvois • Grandest and most impressive palace in Europe • Large-scale reinforced image as most powerful absolute ruler • Gardens by LeVau • 60% royal revenues went to maintaining Versailles • Façade 1/3 mile; 1400 fountains • Royal court grew from 600 to 10,000 people when court moved from Paris • Louis had absolute control over nobility, who were required to live there for several months a year

  5. Religious Policies: Edict of Fontainbleu (1685) • Louis considered himself head of the French Catholic Church • Did not allow the pope to exercise political power • Revoked the Edict of Nantes (Henry IV–1598) • Huguenots lost right to practice Calvinism • 200,000 fled to England, Holland, and the N. American colonies • Cracked down on Jansenists (Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas) Protestant peasants rebelled against the officially sanctioned dragonnades (conversions enforced by dragoons, labeled "missionaries in boots") that followed the Edict of Fontainebleau.

  6. Mercantilism: Finance Minister Jean Baptiste Colbert (1665-83) • State control over country’s economy to achieve favorable balance of trade with other countries • Bullionism: • Colbert’s goal: economic self-sufficiency • Oversaw construction of roads and canals • Granted gov sponsored monopolies to certain industries • Heavy regulation of guilds • Reduced local tolls • Organized French trading companies • Forbade exports of foodstuffs • By 1683, France was leading industrial country • Textiles, mirrors, lace, steel and firearms • Developed merchant marine • Louis’ military buildup stimulated economy • Negatives: • Poor peasant conditions led to emigration • Massive army at expense of strong navy • Wars later on nullified Colbert’s gains

  7. Wars of Louis XIV Overview Costs Destroyed French economy due to trade disruption 20% French subjects died Huge debt fell on 3rd estate Sowed the seeds of the French Revolution • At war for 2/3 of reign • Initially successful, but economically disastrous • Balance of Power system emerged in response to Louis/France threat • No one country could be allowed to dominate continent • Dutch Stadholder William of Orange most important in stopping expansionism

  8. Wars First Dutch War, 1667-1668 (War of Devolution) The Dutch War (1672-1679) Invaded the southern Netherlands as revenge for Dutch opposition in previous war Dutch flooded countryside to prevent invasion of Holland Peace of Nijmegan (1678-79) Took back Burgundy, some Flemish towns, and Alsace Greatest extent of Louis • Louis XIV invaded Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) without declaring war • Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle gave Louis 12 fortified towns on the border of the Spanish Netherlands; gave up Burgundy to Spain

  9. Nine Years’ War (War of League of Augsburg) 1688-97 War of Spanish Succession, 1701-1713 Charles II (Spanish Hapsburg) willed all Spanish territories to grandson Louis XIV Fear of consolidation of crowns and upset of balance of power Grand Alliance formed: England, Dutch Republic, HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savoy • Invasion of Spanish Netherlands led to formation of League of Augsburg (HRE, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, and the Dutch Republic) and balance of power • William of Orange (King William III England) initiated period of Anglo-French rivalry lasting until 1815 • France kept Alsace and Strasbourg (Lorraine)

  10. War of Spanish SuccessionTreaty of Utrecht (1713) • Most important treaty between Peace of Westphalia (1683) and Treaty of Paris (1763) • Maintained balance of power • Ended expansionism under Louis • Spanish possessions partitioned • Britain gained most • Asiento (slave trade) from Spain and right to send one ship to trade in New World • Gained Gibraltar and Minorca • Austria gained Spanish Netherlands • Netherlands gained buffer zone • Prohibited unification of Spanish and French Bourbon dynasties • Kings formally recognized in Sardinia and Prussia – nucleus of future unified states of Germany and Italy Grand Strategy to defeat France

  11. War of Spanish Succession Europe before War Europe after Treaty of Utrecht

  12. Absolutism in Eastern Europe, 1600-1740HOP RAP 3 Aging Empires 3 Emerging Empires Russia Austria Prussia • HRE • Ottoman Empire • Polish Kingdom HRE: religious divisions due to Reformation and religious wars in 16th/17th centuries split Germany among Lutheran, Calvinist, and Catholic princes

  13. 3 Aging Empires Ottoman Empire Polish Kingdom Liberum veto: voting in Parliament had to be unanimous for changes to happen, thus little reform Inability of Polish monarchy to consolidate its power over nobility led to its partition Russia and Prussia encouraged system because it weakened country By 1800, Poland ceased to exist as a sovereign state: carved up by Russia, Prussia, and Austria • Could not maintain possessions in eastern Europe and the Balkans in the face of Austrian and Russian expansion • Under Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566) conquered nearly ½ eastern Europe • Highly talented Christian children incorporated into the Ottoman Empire’s bureaucracy • Janissary Corps: Christian slaves not selected for bureaucracy but served loyally in Turkish army • Tolerant of religion in conquered provinces • Failure to conquer Vienna in 1683 led to decline thereafter

  14. Eastern vs. Western Absolutism East West In France, nobility limited, middle-class strong, and peasants – not serfs Why no serfs in west? Black Death resulted in labor shortages Supremacy of noble landlords • Based on powerful nobility, weak middle class, and oppressed peasantry of serfs • Threat of war with European and Asian invaders served as motivators to consolidate power • 2 methods: • King imposed taxes without consent • Large standing armies • Serfdom: nobles demanded kings issue laws restricting peasants’ right of movement, confiscated peasant land, and imposed labor obligations • Hereditary serfdom revived in Poland, Russia, and Prussia 17th c. and growth of agriculture

  15. The Austrian (Hapsburg) Empire The Rise of Austria • Ruler of Austria also HRE • But, after the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) and Peace of Utrecht (1713) Bourbon dynasty included Spanish throne, thus Hapsburg power only in Austria • Areas: • Naples, Sardinia, Milan • Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) • Hungary (largest part of empire) and Transylvania (Romania) • Reorganization of Bohemia major step towards absolutism • Serfdom intensified during Hapsburg rule

  16. Government • Austria NOT a nation-state, rather a multinational empire: • Austria proper: Germans, Italians • Bohemia: Czechs, Germans • Hungary: Hungarians, Serbs, Croats, Romanians • No single constitutional system or administration – each region had a different legal relationship to the emperor

  17. Important Hapsburg Rulers: Ferdinand II Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740) Austria saved from French expansion during War of Spanish Succession due to its alliance with Britain and under leadership of Prince Eugene of Savoy Pragmatic Sanction (1713) Hapsburg possessions divided and passed to a single heir Daughter, Maria Theresa, inherited empire in 1740 ruling for 40 years • Took control of Bohemia during Thirty Years’ War Ferdinand III • Centralized government in Austria proper Leopold I (1658-1705) • Restricted Protestant worship • Siege of Vienna (1683): repelled the Turks from the gates of Vienna marking last Ottoman attempt to take central Europe

  18. Prussia: House of Hohenzollern Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (r. 1640-1688) Established Prussia as a great power and laid foundation for unification Oversaw Prussian militarism Used power and taxation to unify Rhineland, Prussia and Brandenburg Nobles not exempt Soldiers tax collectors and policemen “Junkers” backbone of Prussian military officer corps Nobles and landed dominated Estates 1653: hereditary subjugation of peasants used to compensate nobles • Strict Calvinist, but granted religious toleration to Catholics and Jews • Admired Swedish government and Netherlands economy • Ongoing struggle between Poland and Sweden for control of Baltic region after 1648 and wars of Louis XIV created permanent crisis • Prussia invaded 1656-57 by Tartars • Weakened nobles estates and created need for larger army

  19. Economy: • Built industry and trade • Woolens, cotton, linen, velvet, lace, silk, soap, paper and iron • Trade failed due to lack of ports and naval experience • Imported skilled craftsmen and Dutch farmers

  20. Frederick I “The Ostentatious” (r. 1688-1713) The first “King of Prussia” • Most popular • Tried to imitate Louis XIV • Encouraged higher education • Founded university and academy of science • Welcomed immigrant scholars • Fought two wars against Louis XIV and allied with Hapsburgs • Nine Years’ War (1688-1697) • War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) • Peace of Utrecht recognized the title “King of Prussia”

  21. Frederick William I (r. 1713-1740) The Soldiers’ King • Most important Hohenzollern king in terms of absolutism • Calvinist • Obsessed with finding tall soldiers • Militarism into society “Sparta of the North” • Society rigid and disciplined • Unquestioning obedience highest virtue • Double size of army (4th largest, but best) • 80% gov spending – very high taxed • Designed to deter from war • Most efficient bureaucracy – merit based • Compulsory elementary school in 1717

  22. Frederick II (r. 1740-1786) Frederick the Great • Enlightened despot • most powerful and famous of Prussian kings • Increased Prussian territory at expense of Hapsburgs

  23. Russia: The Romanov Dynasty • Lasted from ascent of Michael Romanov in 1613 to the Russian Revolution in 1917 • Michael Romanov (r. 1613-1645) • Came to power in Muscovy after the “Time of Troubles” civil war • Romanov favored the boyars (Russian nobles) in return for their support • Russian Empire expanded to the Pacific Ocean in the Far East • Fought several unsuccessful wars against Sweden, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire • Russian society transformed in 17th century • Nobles gained more exemptions from military service • Rights of peasants declined • Bloody Cossack revolts led to more restrictions on serfs • “Old Believers” of the Orthodox Church resisted influx of new religious sects from the west (Lutherans and Calvinists) • Persecuted by government • Many burned themselves in protest over 2 decades • Western ideas gained ground • Via literature, clothing, customs • By 1689 Russia world’s largest country (3x size of Europe)

  24. Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) • Revolt of the Strelski put down by Peter in 1698 securing his reign • Military power greatest concern • 75% budget on military • Royal, military, and artillery academies • Royal army over 200K men + 100K special forces (Cossacks and foreigners) • All young male nobles required to serve 5 years of compulsory service, but non-nobles could rise in rank • Large navy built on Baltic

  25. Peter the Great Great Northern War (1700-1721) Modernization and westernization Imported western technicians and craftsmen to build large factories Russia out-produced England in iron ore Industrial serfdom – workers bought and sold State regulated monopolies created Stifled economic growth Inferior production • Russia (with Poland, Denmark and Saxony allies) vs. Sweden (under Charles XII) • Treaty of Nystad (1721): • Russia gained Latvia, Estonia and its “Window on the West” in the Baltic Sea

  26. Peter the Great Government St. Petersburg Sought to create eastern Amsterdam; conscripted labor (peasants) began construction in 1703 Peterhof palace to rival Versailles Largest city in Europe by his death (75,000) Capital of Russia Ordered nobles to move to city as were merchants and artisans Reforms modernized Russia Modern military and bureaucracy Interest in state over tsar began Gained popular support • Ruled by decree (absolutist) • No representative political body • All landowners owed lifetime service to state (either military, civil service, or court); got control over serfs in exchange • Table of Ranks • Set education standards for civil servants (nobles) • Sought to replace Boyar nobility with service-based nobility loyal to tsar • Secret police crushed opposition • Heavy taxes on trade sales and rent; head tax on every male • Orthodox Church became government department

  27. Peterhof Palace

  28. Constitutionalism in Europe 1600-1725 Government: confederation of seven provinces, each with representative gov. dominated by bourgeoisie and limited power of state • Holland and Zeeland two richest and most influential • Each province autonomous with elected stadholder and military leader • In crisis, provinces elected same stadholder, usually from House of Orange The Dutch Republic Beginning 17th c: Dutch Golden Age Oligarchy of urban gentry and rural landholders to promote trade and protect rights

  29. The Dutch Republic Religious toleration Mercantilism 17th century Innovations in banking and finance promoted urban financial centers and a money economy Amsterdam banking and commercial center of Europe (replaced Antwerp) Bank of Amsterdam (1609): first central bank in European history; offered lowest interest rates • Calvinism dominant religion but split between Dutch Reformed (majority) and Arminian (no belief in predestination) factions • Catholics and Jews fewer rights but tolerated • Allowed for cosmopolitan society and trade promotion

  30. Dutch East India Co. (1602-1799) • Few natural resources, relied on commerce • Largest fleet in the world with several ports • Lacked government controls and monopolies • Fishing industry, but also textiles, furniture, woolens, sugar, tobacco, brewing, pottery, glass, printing, paper, weapons, and ship building • DEIC and DWIC cooperative ventures of private enterprise and state • Challenged Portugese in Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, South Africa • By 1700 dominated spice trade • DWIC trade in Latin America and Africa

  31. Decline of the Dutch Republic Foreign Policy The Dutch Style Human-centered naturalism that considered individuals and everyday life appropriate objects of artistic representation Encouraged via patronage of princes and commercial elites Reflected outlook and values of commercial and bourgeois society • England’s Navigation Acts and removal of Dutch from New York reduced its influence in N. America • War with England and France in 1670s led to weakening • By end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1713, Britain and France two dominant trading powers

  32. Dutch Style vs. Baroque Characteristics: • Did not try to overwhelm viewer • Reflected wealth and religious toleration of secular subjects • Reflected urban and rural settings of Dutch life • Commissioned by merchants or government organizations • Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) • Greatest of all Baroque-era artists, though not of one style • Used tenebrism characteristic of Baroque • Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675) • Simple, domestic interior scenes of ordinary people • Master of use of light • Frans Hals (1580-1666) • Portraits of middle-class people and militia companies • Jan Steen (1626-1679) • Genre painter • Known for humor, use of light and color

  33. Rembrandt The Syndics 1663 Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp 1632

  34. Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675) Girl with a Pearl Earring 1665 The Allegory of Painting 1666-68

  35. Frans Hals Buffoon Playing Lute 1623 Banquet of the Officers at St. George Civic Guard Company, 1627

  36. Jan Steen Wine is a Mocker 1663-64 The Drawing Lesson 1665

  37. England, 17th Century (Constitutionalism W. Europe) Society Gentry: wealthy non-noble landowners in the countryside Dominated politics in the House of Commons Moved from middle to upper class due to commercial activity Relied on legal precedent limiting king’s power Willing to pay taxes as long as they had a say in national expenditures • Capitalism played a major role in the high degree of social mobility • Commercial Revolution increased size of middle class – proportionally larger than any other European nation (except Netherlands) • Improved agricultural techniques improved farming and husbandry

  38. The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 Causes: • James’ reissue of the Declaration of Indulgence • Birth of Catholic heir in 1688 • Parliament unwilling to sacrifice constitutional gains of Civil War • James II forced to abdicate and fled to France • William III (of Orange) and Mary II declared joint sovereigns

  39. English Bill of Rights 1689 • England becomes constitutional monarchy • Petition of Right (1628), Habeas Corpus Act (1679) and Bill of Rights all part of English Constitution • Not a democratic revolution • Power in hands of nobility and gentry • Parliament represented upper class Provisions: • Monarch could not be Catholic • Laws only made with consent of Parliament • Parliament right of free speech • No standing army in peace time • No taxation without Parliament approval • No excessive bail nor cruel and unusual punishment • Right to trial by jury, due process of law, and reasonable bail • Right to bear arms (only for Protestants) • Free elections • People had right of petition

  40. Hobbes vs. Locke • Hobbes’ Social Contract (1651) • Humans are born self-interested, wicked… • Life in state of nature is “nasty, brutish, and short” • w/o gov. to keep order = chaos • Social Contract: People agree to give up absolute freedom to a strong (absolute) ruler, in exchange they get law & order • Hobbes: Leviathan (1660), absolute monarchy necessary to protect us from ourselves • Locke’s Social Contract (1690) • People are born w/ a clean slate “tabula rasa” & are shaped by experiences • We have God-given natural rights (life, liberty, property) • Purpose of gov. is to protect our rights, if they fail to do this, people have the right to rebel • Gov. power comes from the people (democracy) • Influenced American, Dutch, & French Revolutions

  41. Act of Union, 1707 Toleration Act, 1689 Act of Settlement, 1701 If William or sister-in-law Anne died without heirs, throne passes to Protestant heirs No more Stuarts in line of succession Anne died in 1714, Hanoverian heir assumed throne as George I (1714-1727) George II (1727-1760) more concerned with territory in Hanover, did not speak fluent English, reduced decision making by crown • Right to worship for Protestant non-conformers, but could not hold office • United Scotland and England into Great Britain • Scots wanted access to English trade empire • Scottish Presbyterians feared Stuart return to throne Robert Walpole, PM 1721-1742 • Viewed as first Prime Minister, member of majority party in Parliament and leader of government • Created precedent that cabinet is responsible to House of Commons

  42. Essay Questions • Analyze the extent to which absolutism developed in France under Henry IV and Louis XIII. • Analyze the ways in which the absolutism of Louis XIV impacted the bureaucracy, the nobility, the peasantry, economics and religious issues in France. • To what extent did the balance of power remain intact in Europe between 1600 and 1715? • Analyze the role of mercantilism in France in the 17th century. • Analyze how the Baroque reflected the “Age of Absolutism.” • Analyze the military, political, and social factors for the rise of absolutism in Austria, Prussia, and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries. • Compare and contrast absolutism in eastern Europe with that of France in western Europe.