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ABSOLUTISM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

ABSOLUTISM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

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ABSOLUTISM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

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  1. ABSOLUTISM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE • The major states in central and eastern Europe - • Prussia • Austria • Russia

  2. PRUSSIA – THE ARMY AND THE BUREAUCRACY • Two most significant kings of 18th century Prussia – • King Frederick William I (1713-1740) • King Frederick II = Frederick the Great (1740-1786) • The backbone of Prussia – • The army • The bureaucracy

  3. THE GENERAL DIRECTORY • Primary instrument of govt administration • Supervised the military • Supervised the police • Handled economic and financial affairs • Highly efficient and organized • Govt bureaucracy was closely supervised by king

  4. THE JUNKERS • Prussian aristocrats/nobles • Owned large estates with many serfs • Served as officer corps of Prussian military

  5. THE PRUSSIAN ARMY • The best in Europe • Large • Belief in duty, obedience, sacrifice • Prussian militarism = the military is always right/best

  6. FREDERICK THE GREAT • One of best educated/most cultured monarchs in Europe • Enlightenment thinker • Saw himself as “first servant of the state” = responsible and serious leader of the state • New law code/system of laws • Granted limited freedom of speech/press • Complete religious toleration by the state • Military genius and commander

  7. PRUSSIAN KING FREDERICK II = FREDERICK THE GREAT

  8. THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE OF THE HABSBURGS • Led by the Habsburg monarchy • Vienna was the capital of the empire • Empire was multinational and multicultural • Difficult to create a unified system of laws and administration

  9. AUSTRIAN EMPRESS MARIA THERESA

  10. EMPRESS MARIA THERESA 1740-1780 • Reforms her empire to strengthen it against Prussia • Makes the empire more centralized and bureaucratic • Enlarges and modernizes the army • Deeply Catholic and conservative -> resisted the radical reforms the philosophes wanted

  11. AUSTRIAN EMPEROR JOSEPH II

  12. EMPEROR JOSEPH II1780-1790 • Great believer in the Enl. • Reason should dominate govt and society • Radical reforms • Abolished serfdom • Economic modernization -> eliminated internal trade barriers, monopolies, and guild restrictions • New law code/equality before the law • Religious reforms = toleration • Reforms too radical -> upset everyone • When he died most reforms cancelled -> failed

  13. RUSSIA EMPRESS CATHERINE THE GREAT

  14. RUSSIA UNDER CATHERINE THE GREAT • German wife of the Tsar -> has her husband murdered • Becomes Tsarina -> claims to be an enlightened reformer • Tried to reform the law code -> issues Instruction -> nothing changes • Landowning aristocrats gain more power/influence – Charter of the Nobility • Conditions worsen for the peasantry/serfs • Cossacks = tribal warriors who fought in southern Russia

  15. EMELYAN PUGACHEV1773-1775 • Leader of mass peasant rebellion in S. Russia • Peasants rise up -> burn estates -> 1500 aristocrats and their families murdered • Pugachev is captured and executed • Pugachev’s rebellion scares the hell out of nobles -> crackdown -> no reform

  16. TERRITORIAL EXPANSION UNDER CATHERINE THE GREAT • Westward into Poland • Southward to the Black Sea • Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji -> gain some territory and rights from Ottoman Turks

  17. THE DESTRUCTION OF POLAND • Problems for Poland • Weak elected monarch • Limited powers for king • Small bureaucracy • Small army • King had no power/nobles had all the power • Surrounded by 3 powerful neighbors

  18. THE PARTITIONS OF POLAND • Three strong neighbors = Prussia, Austria, Russia -> seize Polish territory and divide it among themselves • First partition 1772 – 30% of territory • Second partition 1793 – more land taken • Third partition 1795 – Poland ceases to exist/disappears from the map • The lesson of Poland = strong, absolutist state was necessary to survive!