Revolutionary War Battles By Mandy Holland Fourth Grade
Fort TiconderogaMay 1775 • During the American Revolution, Fort Ticonderoga located on the western side of Lake Champlain in New York was an important post on the route from Canada to the colonies. • Colonel Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen with his Green Mountain Boys led a surprise attack on the British fort in May of 1775. The Americans took the fort without firing a shot. • In mid-winter of January 1776, Colonel Henry Knox led an expedition to Fort Ticonderoga to bring back the cannons that Arnold and Allen had captured. The cannons were lined up to face the British ships that were blockading the port of Boston. The British were forced to evacuate Boston, leaving the city and port to the Americans.
Battle of Bunker HillJune 1775 • Actually took place at Breed’s Hill • The colonists build earthworks to protect themselves in battle • The British rush the hill 3 times • The Colonists are forced to retreat due to lack of ammunition and supplies
Valley ForgeSeptember 1777 • When General William Howe and his British troops took Philadelphia in September of 1777, General Washington was forced to make winter camp about 20 miles from Philadelphia at Valley Forge. • It was a miserable winter for the 10,000 soldiers of the Continental Army at Valley Forge. Many soldiers lacked shoes and warm clothing. Food was scarce. Diseases such as smallpox and typhoid fever swept through the camp. 2500 men died that winter from the cold, disease and malnutrition. • During this winter, General Lafayette joined the Continental Army, without pay, and impressed the troops and Washington by living under the same conditions as the soldiers. • Another important addition to the Continental Army was Baron Friedrich von Steuben. He knew how to train an army. Even under the hardships of the camp, he drilled the soldiers repeatedly during the winter so that by springtime the Continental Army had become a strong and disciplined fighting force.
Who are these Hessians? Hessians are soldiers from Germany. King George hired these soldiers to fight the colonists.
Surprising Them in their Undies! Battle of Trenton
Battle of TrentonDecember 1776 • On the night of December 25, 1776, George Washington crossed the freezing Delaware River to attack Hessians. • Washington’s troops Then they marched nine miles in the early morning hours to reach Trenton at eight o'clock. • The American troops surprised the Hessian mercenary soldiers in an early morning raid and the Americans captured nearly 1000 men. There were no American casualties. • This victory was the turning point in the war of independence for the Americans.
Battle of SaratogaOctober 1777 • The American forces were led by General Horatio Gates, General Philip Schuyler and General Benedict Arnold. • General Burgoyne led the British forces. • Gates lost the first battle and after a disagreement with Arnold about battle tactics, Gates relieved Arnold of his command. The British forces were exhausted but were ordered to attack Bemis Heights. While Gates defensive moves were effective, it was General Arnold who saw an opening to turn the battle into an offensive move. Despite having been relieved of his command, Arnold joined the battle anyway. His efforts were so successful and the British troops so beaten down that General Burgoyne was forced to surrender a few days at Saratoga.
Surrender! Burgoyne is forced to surrender.
The British plan was to cut the colonies in two like a snake- when you cut off a snake’s head it dies! This plan did not work because one army for the British didn’t show up and another was late! The only army there was easily defeated. What do I Need to know about the Battle of Saratoga?
Outcomes of the Battle of Saratoga • The colonial army WON!!! • France decides to help out the colonists.
Thank You, France! • Upon hearing of the American victory at Saratoga, the French declared recognition of the United States of America and fully supported their war of independence.
Battle of YorktownAugust-October 1781 • The last major battle of the American Revolution was fought at Yorktown. • Washington learned that the French Admiral de Grasse was sailing to Virginia to prevent the British army under the command of General Cornwallis from leaving Yorktown. He and the French General Rochambeau rushed their troops to Yorktown to trap the British and prevent them from escaping over land. • Cornwallis was surrounded. The American and French troops gradually closed in on him. • Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on Oct 19, 1781.
What do I need to know aboutThe Battle of Yorktown? • The British army set up camp on a peninsula • Washington’s army blocks tem in to the west and the French Navy blocks them to the east. • They are trapped and help can not arrive
Outcomes of the Battle Of Yorktown • The Colonial army wins the WAR!!! • Colonists are free of British Rule! No more King! • They are their own country
The World Turned Upside Down • The British band played this tune when the British surrendered at the Battle of Yorktown • The Six and a half years of war was over.