Look at past papers • Spend time looking at the Decision Making Task for the papers we have looked at. • TIME: 6 Minutes
Examiners Say: The Decision Making Task should be written in a report style, and not as a ‘for’ and ‘against’ essay. Spend 40 mins on this task. Including planning time.
What do I have to do? • You have to take on a role and write a report recommending a course of action. • Provide info from sources and your background knowledge to support it. • Also, identify and comment on any opposition to your recommendation.
What kind of role? • Researcher • Adviser • Civil Servant • Consultant • Chairperson of a committee • Planner • Expert in social policy
What is my task? • On reverse of evaluating Qs. • Look at 2009 • Role you have to adopt • Who report is for • Recommendation you have to make • Must be a report, not an essay. • What to put in report • MUST use sources and own knowledge
Think about your role – do you have to adopt a point of view? For example, are you a researcher giving a balanced opinion or a pressure group preparing a report to favour one point of view? • Whichever, your report MUST be balanced – not one-sided. • Always include options and other points of view in your report.
Planning the report Read sources carefully and look for: • Arguments for and against proposal • Headings to divide up info • Links between sources • Clues to background information. Highlight the sources and makes notes in the margins. (Not today!)
How do I layout my report? • To: • From: • Introduction • State what you have been asked to do… • Briefly explain the issue… • Give your reccomendation…
How do I lay out my introduction? THE INTRODUCTION OF FIFTY-FIFTY To: Minister for Work and Pensions From: Joe Bloggs, Policy Researcher, Department for Work and Pensions 1.0 Introduction In my capacity a policy researcher, I have been asked to make a recommendation on the proposal to introduce an Fifty-Fifty.........
Introduction 1 • I am a policy researcher and I have been asked to prepare a report for the Department of Work and Pensions, in which I will recommend or reject a proposal to introduce Fifty-Fifty. • WEAK OR STRONG?
WEAK! • Personalises (uses I) • Does not give a reccomendation • Copied almost word for word from the question • Gives little indication that the role or task is understood
Introduction 2 • In my capacity as a policy researcher, I have been asked to make a recommendation on the proposal to introduce Fifty-Fifty, for the Department of Work and Pensions. Fifty-Fifty is controversial because it will make it compulsory for all senior management posts in the public sector to be split equally between men and women. There are strong views on both sides and the Equal Opportunities and the business statements contain some bias and exaggeration. • After examining the sources and considering other relevant information, it is my recommendation that Fifty-Fifty be introduced. • WEAK OR STRONG?
STRONG • Gives a recommendation • Identifies bias and takes this into account • Briefly explains the issue
For each written source, try to find figures from the statistics that back up the point of view. • It’s a good idea to tick off each source (and background knowledge) when you use it. • E.g. A \ • B \ • C1 \ • C2 \ • C3 \ • Background Knowledge \
Bringing in background knowledge • Look for triggers – key words or phrases that tell you what background knowledge to include. • E.g. “The glass ceiling in the UK has proved to be very robust.” Reports that have no background knowledge will not pass! This background knowledge must be integrated throughout the report – not just in one section. e.g. Differences in senior management positions in Britain (FTSE 100 companies); existence of the glass ceiling; pay differences between men and women.
1.0 Intro • 2.0 Reasons for your recommendation Give (develop) arguments in support of your reccomendations. (Use separate headings for each reason, problem or solution.) 3.0 Problems Give arguments against your recommendation.
4.0 Solutions • Give answers to problems and comment on opposing arguments (arguments against your reccomendation.) • 5.0 Conclusion • Restate your recommendation • Briefly summarise why the advantages of your recomendation outweigh the problems…
Conclusion • As a policy researcher, it is my conclusion that the Department for Work and Pensions should…. • Joe Bloggs • Policy Reseacher • Department of Work and Pensions
So, • 1.0 Intro • 2.0 Reasons For • 3.0 Problems • 4.0 Solutions • 5.0 Conclusion • Remember sub-headings – each reason, problem or solution gets a sub-heading, e.g. 2.1, 2.2
How do I know what subheadings to use? • Usually, each paragraph of the written source will give you a topic for the heading. • Identify 3 subheadings if our recommendation is to introduce 50/50.
Para 1 – Problems of Glass Ceiling • Para 2 – The Pay Gap • Para 3 – Gender Inequality • Use these as subheadings for one of the sections of your report. • PUT EACH TITLE AT THE TOP OF A BLANK PAGE. • WRITE OUT EACH SOURCE, e.g. A,B,C so you can tick it off.
BACK to 50/50 • Now decide which decision you are going to make. • Note down which evidence you will use to argue for your conclusion. Remember to note down statistics and background knowledge that you will use in your argument. • SYNTHESIS is important: You need to link information from more than one source and also link in your background knowledge.
Arguments in support • Para 1 – Problems of Glass Ceiling • Para 2 – The Pay Gap • Para 3 – Gender Inequality
Identify and comment on opposing arguments • What arguments could we identify against 50/50?
Identify and comment on opposing arguments • What arguments could we identify against 50/50? • Not meritocratic • Not neccessary • Patroninsing to women
Gather evidence for each topic • Link in background knowledge • Use statistics
Good or weak? • 50/50 needs to be introduced to tackle the glass ceiling, Many women who choose a career in the public services are prevented from realising their full potential. This is bad for the economy as these women do not contributing as fully as they could.