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This section explores the origins of Judaism, focusing on the founder Abraham, the covenant with God, and the legacy of the Hebrew people. It delves into the stories of Ishmael and Isaac, the Exodus from Egypt, the giving of the Ten Commandments, and the rise of the Israelite kingdom under David and Solomon. This chapter also highlights the significance of Judeo-Christian ethics and the Hebrew scriptures in shaping Western civilization.
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Chapter 2 The First Civilizations(c. 6000 B.C.–587 B.C.)Section 6 - Judaism Mr. C. Dennison Cardinal Hayes HS Bronx, NY
ethical monotheism Religion believing in one god
covenant A solemn agreement.
Abraham • According to the Bible, the founder of the Hebrew people was ____________
Sarah Abraham’s wife was ___________.
Ishmael • God promises Abram a multitude of descendants during an episode in which Abram sacrifices to God, During this period, Sarai, being barren, offers her handmaiden, Hagar, to Abram. Hagar soon conceives, and as a result begins to see herself as superior to Sarai. Sarai complains to Abram, who gives Sarai carte blanche. After Sarai treats Hagar harshly, Hagar flees. When in the desert, God appears to Hagar, telling her to return, but promising that her son shall also be the father of a "multitude". Her son is called ______________.
Isaac • When Abram is ninety-nine, God again appears to him and affirms his promise. A covenant is entered into: Sarai will give birth to a son who will be called _______. It is promised that his son will father twelve princes, who will become a great nation. Abram's name is changed to Abraham and Sarai's to Sarah. According to the Book of Genesis, Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born, and Sarah was beyond childbearing years.
Jewish • The __________ people trace their roots back to Isaac.
Arabic Islamic traditions consider Ishmael as the ancestor of ______ people.
Twelve Tribes of Israel Twelve sons of Abraham’s grandson Jacob (Israel), from whom modern Jews trace their heritage.
Egypt The Hebrews were held as slaves for 400 years in _________
Moses The Hebrews were led out of slavery by a great leader, _________.
Exodus According to the Bible, Moses led the, the ________ escape of the Hebrews from Egypt.
Sinai As the Bible tells it, Moses climbed to the top of Mount _______,located in the southern Sinai Peninsula. According to the Bible, this is where Moses received the written words that established the principles and beliefs of Judaism.
Ten Commandments • When he returned to the Hebrews, he carried tablets bearing the ______________. These were the moral laws that the Hebrew god had revealed to Moses.
Yahweh (YAH·way) Name for the Hebrew god.
Saul • As nomads, the Hebrews had been divided into 12 tribes. During the years of fighting, the tribes united under one king. The first king of this united kingdom called Israel was _______.
David • Saul was succeeded by ______, who formed a new dynasty and occupied the city of Jerusalem, making it a capital and religious center.
Solomon • Under the rule of David's son and successor,________, Israel reached the height of its wealth and power.
Torah Jewish scriptures that include the first five books of the Old Testament of the Bible.
Judeo-Christian ethics • Values first established by the Hebrews that contribute greatly to Western civilization.
Old Testament • The Hebrew scriptures tell of the creation of the world and the special mission of the Hebrews. About one third of these scriptures—also known as the _____________ of the Christian Bible—is Hebrew history. The remaining scriptures include laws, poetry, prophecy, and religious instruction.
Noah's Ark The vessel which, according to the Book of Genesis was built by Noah at God's command to save himself, his family, and the world's animals from a worldwide deluge.
deluge • Another word for a flood.