Tier II – Secondary Interventions NW PBIS Network
Who is the NorthWest PBIS Network? Supporting educators, families and community members to implement and sustain positive, effective and culturally inclusive environments to achieve social and academic outcomes for Allchildren and youth.
PBIS Events • Oct 19th – Fall PBIS Coaches Institute, Eugene, OR • Nov 3rd-4th – Fall PBIS Conference, Seattle • Nov 5th – PBIS Classroom Workshop Jessica Sprick, Seattle • Nov 5th-7th - SWIS Facilitator Training, Seattle • Nov 5th – ISIS-SWIS Facilitator Training, Seattle • Jan 30th – Winter PBIS Coaches Institute, Spokane • Learn More at www.pbisnetwork.org
Goal of this Training Overview/Review of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Understand Core Features of PBIS Readiness for Implementation Action Planning for Roll Out
Tentative Agenda • 8:15-8:30 Welcome and Introductions • 8:30-9:45 What is PBIS and What are the Benefits? • 9:45-12:00 Preparing for Full Implementation • 12:00-1:00 Lunch • 1:00-1:15 Q&A from the Morning • 1:15-2:00 Discipline System • 2:00-3:00 Action Planning • 3:00-3:15 Final Q & A and Next Steps • 3:15 Adjourn
Tier I – Universal • How are you doing with Tier I? • Successes • Challenges • Concerns • Data sources • TIC, ODR, SET, BoQ, … • For any concerns or challenges, add an item to your action plan Check-in
Overview • Emphasis will be placed on the processes, systems, & organizational structures that are needed to enable the accurate adoption, fluent use, & sustained application of these practices. • Importance of data based decision making, evidence based practices, & on-going staff development & support will be emphasized.
Purpose • To examine the features of a proactive systems approach to preventing and responding to school-wide discipline problems • Big Ideas • Examples
The State of Education • Address the social behavior of students; • Continually deliver high quality instruction; • Implement new initiatives; • Meet professional growth goals; • Serve an increasingly diverse student body. • Paradoxically, as resources for intervention and individually designed instruction are decreasing, the number of students demonstrating problem behavior is increasing (Hawken, Vincent, & Schumann, 2008).
School Safety: A Top Concern • Providing a safe, positive school climate, which engages students in their academic program and supports their social and behavioral development, has been an enduring goal of educators, parents, and policymakers (Barnoski, 2001; Shelton, Owens, & Song, 2009). • The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward public schools found that addressing a lack of discipline, fighting, and violence were among the top priorities for respondents(Rose & Gallup, 2007).
Impact of Behavior on Schools • More than 30% of our teachers will leave the profession due to student discipline issues and intolerable behavior of students (Public Agenda, 2004). • Student problem behavior can consume more than 50% of teachers’ and administrators’ time (U.S. Department of Education, 2000).
Student Wellbeing • One in five (20%) of students are in need of some type of mental health service during their school years, yet 70% of these students do not receive services (Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health, 2011) • It is estimated that the number of students being identified as having an Emotional/Behavioral Disorder has doubled in the last 30 years (US Dept of Ed, 2007).
The Challenge Exclusion and punishment are the most common responses to conduct disorders in schools. Lane & Murakami, (1987) Rose, (1988) Nieto, (1999) Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, (2002) Punishing problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. Mayer, 1995 Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991 Skiba & Peterson, 1999
Examples… • In one school year, Jason received 87 office discipline referrals. • In one school year, a teacher processed 273 behavior incident reports.
A middle school principal must teach classes when teachers are absent, because substitute teachers refuse to work in a school that is unsafe & lacks discipline. • During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that overflow is sent to counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in hallways after the late bell.
“Positive Behavior Support” PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students. “EBS” = “PBS” = “PBIS” etc.
Evidence-based features of SW-PBS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior Collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual interventions. Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation
SWPBS IMPLEMENTATION DRIVERS Data: For decision making Systems: To sustain the implementation Practices: Evidenced-based and doable Outcomes
Why implement SWPBS? Create a positive school culture: School environment is predictable 1. common language 2. common vision (understanding of expectations) 3. common experience (everyone knows) School environment is positive regular recognition for positive behavior School environment is safe violent and disruptive behavior is not tolerated School environment is consistent adults use similar expectations.
Implementation Features • Establish PBIS leadership team • Secure SW agreements & supports • Establish data-based action plan • Arrange for high fidelity implementation • Conduct formative data-based monitoring
Experimental Research on SWPBIS • SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: • Reduction in problem behavior • Increased academic performance • Increased attendance • Improved perception of safety • Improved organizational efficiency • Reduction in staff turnover • Increased perception of teacher efficacy Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156
Team Implementation Checklist • Complete the TIC • Identify your schools strengths and your top three challenges/concerns • Add items to your action plan • Consider using the TIC quarterly during this school year to monitor progress Activity
Working Example: Behavior Education Program (BEP) (March & Horner, 1998) • Need • 7% of students with chronic problem behavior • Targeted, group based intervention needed • Expected to work for most but not all students • Interventions must be functional assessment based • 24 students in Secondary Interventions
BEP Features • Students identified with multiple office referrals • Student-parent-school contract formed • Connection to school-wide expectations • Individualized, daily monitoring
BEP Set-up • Teach students, teachers, & parents routines • Establish school & home reinforcers • Establish data collection system • Conduct abbreviated FBAs
BEP Daily Cycle 1. Check in office at arrival to school • Reminder binder • Pre-corrections • Turn in previous days signed Daily Progress Report (DPR) form • Pick-up new DPR form • Review daily goals
2. At each class • Student completes DPR card • Teacher checks & initials 3. Check out at end of day • Review the points & goals for the day • Receive reinforcer if goal met • Take successful day card home • Pre-corrections
4. Give successful day card to parent(s) • receive reinforcer from parent • have parent sign card 5. Return signed card next day
Student Recommended for BEP/CICO BEP/CICO Implemented Coordinator Summarizes Data For Decision Making Morning Check-in Parent Feedback Regular Teacher Feedback Bi-weekly Meeting to Assess Student Progress Afternoon Check-out Revise Program Exit Program
Clackamas ESD Video https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLyhnHjBLW5BSIZwyNVDYrEZvVsAITVpb9
Evidence-Base Summary • Typical schools are able to implement the BEP/CICO successfully. • Use of the BEP/CICO is related to reduced levels of problem behavior, and, for some students, increased levels of academic engagement • The BEP/CICO is likely to be effective with 60-75% of at risk students. • Students who do not find adult attention rewarding appear least likely to respond successfully to the BEP/CICO.
Is My School Ready to Implement? • School-wide system of behavior support in place • Staff buy-in for implementation • Administrative support • Time & money allocated • No major changes in school climate • e.g., teacher strikes, administrative turnover, major changes in funding • Implementation a top priority
Readiness Checklist • Tier I systems in-place? Yes No • Staff buy-I for implementation?Yes No • Administrative support? Yes No • No major changes in school? Yes No • Implementation a top priority?Yes No Decision • Proceed with Tier II Implementation • Develop action plan to improve Tier I • Reconsider Tier II at this time Activity
Purpose • To examine the elements needed to begin Tier II Interventions and begin the planning process for implementing these interventions in your school
Review: Critical Features • Intervention is continuously available • Rapid access to intervention (less than a week) • Very low effort by teachers • Positive system of support • Students agree to participate • Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school • Flexible intervention based on assessment • Function-based
What’s in a Name? • Behavior Education Program (BEP) • Kennedy Card Program • Hello, Update, & Goodbye (HUG program) • Check and Connect • HAWK (Helping a Winning Kid) • Keep positive • Consider use school mascot for acronym • Caution with Using Behavior Card or Behavior Plan
Resources: Time & Materials • Adequate time scheduled for coach, coordinator and team meetings • Forms • Daily Progress Report (DPR) • Request for Assistance (RFA) • Brief FBA • Parent permission • Student contract • Tracking sheets • School supplies for participants • Reinforcements for participants
Key Team Members • Coordinator • Check-In, Check-Out Coach(es) • Based on number of students needing support • Recorder • Team members for decision making support
Personnel: Coordinator • Take care of requests for assistance • Make placement decision based on program requirements if meeting is not in next 24 to 48 hours • Organize and maintain records • Gather supplemental information for meetings • Prioritize students for team meetings • Schedule parent/student orientation • Update teachers on student’s identified goals and progress (initial, during , exiting) • Collaborate with coach(es) outside of team meetings
Personnel: Coach(es) • Flexibility within job responsibility (e.g., educational asst., counselor, behavior asst., …) • Maintain check-in/out procedure • Collect and record daily progress goal • Create graphs that reflect students daily goal percentage weekly • Collaborate with Coordinator outside of team meetings