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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 Perception Interventions

  2. What Are Perceptions? Cognitive interpretations of events

  3. Selective Awareness • Choose to focus on the positive rather than the negative in a situation • Realize that there is both good and bad in every situation • Choose a positive physiological and psychological response

  4. Selective Awareness, cont’d • De-emphasize (but do not deny) negative features • Recall the good events of each day • “Take time to smell the roses”

  5. Concepts of Perspective and Selective Awareness • Put minor stressors into perspective • Focus on the positive aspects of the current situation • Develop an “attitude of gratitude” • Learn to be grateful for what you have, while not ignoring reality

  6. Humor and Stress • Martin & Lefcourt (1973) found humor prevented negative life events from resulting in mood disturbances • Labott & Martin (1987) found that coping with humor acted as a buffer between negative life events and mood disturbances • Humor results in psychological and physiological changes leading to relaxation

  7. Humor and Stress Relationship, cont’d • Humor has been shown to improve the health of the elderly and has been used as therapy • Humor also can be used inappropriately, causing distress to others

  8. Personality Behavior Patterns (Friedman & Rosenman, 1974) • Two types • Type A: characterized by competitive drive, aggressiveness, impatience, and time urgency • Found to be associated with coronary artery disease • Exhibited in females as well as males • Learned behavior, not genetically passed down

  9. Personality Behavior Patterns, cont’d (Friedman & Rosenman, 1974) • Two types, cont’d • Type B: behavior that exhibits no free-floating hostility or sense of time urgency, opposite of Type A • By setting goals linked to rewards and punishments, one can modify behaviors

  10. Self-Esteem andStress Management • Self-esteem is how one regards oneself • Poor self-esteem is related to drug abuse, irresponsible sexual behavior, and other unhealthy activities • Can be affected by treatment by others; how we are judged affects how we feel about ourselves

  11. Self-Esteem andStress Management, cont’d • Poor self-esteem may lead to the development of stress-related illnesses • Stress management requires confidence in your ability to control your life effectively

  12. How to Increase Self-Esteem? • Identify what needs to be improved • Look at other components (e.g., low scores from Lab 7.3) • Ask yourself what needs to be improved • Whatever you decide to do: • Do it now! • Stick with it! • You can feel better about yourself

  13. Locus of Control • Perception of the amount of personal control you have over events in your life • External locus of control: perception that one has little control over these events • Internal locus of control: perception that one has a good deal of control over life events • Those with external locus take less action to control their lives because they believe such action is fruitless

  14. Locus of Control, cont’d • People can have good locus of control in one area of life and not in another • Cocreator Perception Deficiency (CCPD) describes those who believe that they have total control over events or no control at all; both are faulty

  15. Anxiety • Complete Lab 7.5 • Anxiety is unrealistic fear resulting in physiological arousal and behaviors to avoid or escape the stimulus

  16. Anxiety, cont’d • Types of anxiety • Test anxiety • Trait anxiety • State anxiety • Panic disorder • Social phobia • Specific phobias

  17. Coping Techniques • Environmental planning • Relabeling • Self-talk • Thought stopping • Systematic desensitization • ABCDE technique (Ellis & Harper, 1975)

  18. Chapter 7 Perception Interventions