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The American Revolution

The American Revolution

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The American Revolution

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The American Revolution Unit One Part Two

  2. Problems with the Stamp Act • Admiralty Courts • No jury • Burden of proof—defendant • Finances occupying army • Radical Whigs? (Sniff sniff) • Legislation v. taxation • “no taxation w/out representation” • Colonial legislatures • “Virtual Representation”

  3. Colonists Apply Pressure • Stamp Act Congress of 1765 • 27 delegates/9 colonies • Grievances to the king • Eroded barriers between colonies • Non-Importation Agreements • Boycott—DIY ethic • Petitions • Women—made homespun cloth • “Sons and Daughters of Liberty” • Ransacked houses, confiscated money, tarred and feathered

  4. Repeal of the Stamp Act • Bureaucracy breaks down • British Agents resign • British merchants and laborers hit hard • ¼ exports, ½ shipping focused on colonies • English want law repealed • Repealed in 1766 • Declaratory Act—British rule supreme

  5. The Townshend Taxes: 1767 • Charles Townshend’s revenue scheme • Indirect tax on imported goods • Glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. • Payable at ports • Taxes would go to pay for British Administration in colonies • Lose check on royal governors • Boycotts less effective • Smuggling—especially tea • Boston (1768)—two regiments of Redcoats • Repealed in 1770 • Tax on tea remains • Lack of revenue

  6. Murder in the Colonies • The Battle of Golden Hill—NY • Labor grievances + competition • “Liberty” pole • Violence erupts—leaves one dead • Boston Massacre • “Bloody Backs” • British presence resented • Labor grievances + competition • Taunting • 05 March 1770 • Colonial crowd (60) harasses redcoats (10) • Snowballs, rocks, and swear words • Redcoats open fire • Killed 5, wounded 6 • Punishment—hand branding • Used as propaganda by colonists • Paul Revere

  7. Committees of Correspondence • Samuel Adams (1772) • Spread the spirit of resistance through letters • Propaganda • 80 towns follow suit • Intercolonial committees • Virginia—1773

  8. The Tea Act • Repeal of the Townshend Acts: • Does not include tea tax! • The British East India Company • Approaching bankruptcy • Parliament wanted to salvage company • Tax revenue • Granted monopoly in colonies • 17 million lbs. of unsold tea—to the colonies • Made tea much cheaper despite the tea tax • Colonists cry foul! • Baiting them to pay to protested tax.

  9. Resistance • Philadelphia and New York • Mass protesters sent ships home • Annapolis • Burned vessel and cargo • Charleston • Merchants refused to accept delivery • Tea seized by officials • Boston (Tea Party) • Thomas Hutchinson • 16 December 1773 • 100 Bostonians relieve vessels of 342 chests of tea

  10. “The Massacre of American Liberty” • The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts): 1774 • Response to destruction of property • Aimed at Boston, MA • Boston Port Act—closed the harbor • Restrictions on town meetings • British officers tried for crimes in Britain • Quartering Act—soldiers in private homes • Martial law

  11. The Quebec Act (1774) • Allowed French elements to retain their traditions in Quebec: • No trial by jury—assembly • Recognition of Catholicism • Response: • Wide reaching suspicions (radical whigs): • No trial by jury • No representative gov’t. • Expanded Quebec's borders • Catholic expansion

  12. The First Continental Congress • Philadelphia: September-October, 1774 • Consultative body • No consensus • Produced papers • Declaration of Rights • Appeals to: • Other British colonies • The King • British citizens • The Association • Complete boycott of British goods • Britain rejects all petitions!

  13. …and Church Bells Rang • Lexington and Concord • Paul Revere • Warns colonists • Minutemen—Massachusetts militia • Stockpiled muskets and powder at Concord • Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith • Leads 700 redcoats to seize munitions • Apprehend Hancock and Adams • Confrontation at Lexington • Eight colonists killed • Concord • Munitions gone! • March to Boston—minutemen fire from behind rock walls • 70 redcoats die

  14. Lexington “The shot heard around the world”

  15. The British

  16. The Patriots

  17. Big Picture • As the struggle for colonial rights pressed on, there still was not a clear consensus of what the goal of the struggle should be. As time passed however, the crown found itself less than conciliatory when it came to the colonists. With the erosion of the notion that a return to pre-1763 America was possible, the colonists embraced the conflict as a war for independence. The struggle that began at Lexington and Concord would ultimately end in the birth of a nation.

  18. The Second Continental Congress • 10 May 1775—Philadelphia • No consensus on independence • Adopted measures to raise money for defense: • Army and Navy • Named George Washington General of Army • Not a military genius • Was a moral force—trust • Aristocrat—not an opportunist • Quelled sectional tensions

  19. Bunker Hill • Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold (Raj Patel) • Ticonderoga and Crown Point • Gun powder • Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)—July 1775 • 3000 Brits v 1500 Pats • British launch frontal assault • Colonists inflict heavy casualties • 1,000 British casualties • 450 Patriot casualties • Colonists retreat • Run out of ammo