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Global Financial Crisis PowerPoint Presentation
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Global Financial Crisis

Global Financial Crisis

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Global Financial Crisis

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    1. Global Financial Crisis --- Subprime mortgage Crisis

    2. Subprime mortgage crisis The subprime mortgage crisis is an ongoing financial crisis triggered by a significant decline in housing prices and related mortgage payment delinquencies and foreclosures in the United States. This caused a ripple effect across the financial markets and global banking systems, as investments related to housing prices declined significantly in value, placing the health of key financial institutions (e.g., Lehman Brothers) and government-sponsored enterprises (GSE, e.g., Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) at risk.

    3. Liquidity declined Funds available for personal and business spending (i.e., liquidity) declined as financial institutions tightened lending practices. The crisis, which has roots in the closing years of the 20th century but has become more apparent throughout 2007 and 2008, has passed through various stages exposing pervasive weaknesses in the global financial system and regulatory framework.

    4. Housing bubble The crisis began with the bursting of the United States housing bubble and high default rates on "subprime" and adjustable rate mortgages (ARM), beginning in approximately 20052006. Government policies and competitive pressures for several years prior to the crisis encouraged higher risk lending practices.

    5. Subprime lending Subprime lending (near-prime, non-prime, or second chance lending) is a financial term that was popularized by the media during the "credit crunch" of 2007 and involves financial institutions providing credit to borrowers deemed "subprime" (sometimes referred to as "under-banked"). Subprime borrowers have a heightened perceived risk of default, such as those who have a history of loan delinquency or default, those with a recorded bankruptcy, or those with limited debt experience. Although there is no standardized definition, in the US subprime loans are usually classified as those where the borrower has a credit score below a particular level, e.g. a FICO score below 660.

    6. Refinance Further, an increase in loan incentives such as easy initial terms and a long-term trend of rising housing prices had encouraged borrowers to assume difficult mortgages in the belief they would be able to quickly refinance at more favorable terms. However, once interest rates began to rise and housing prices started to drop moderately in 20062007 in many parts of the U.S., refinancing became more difficult.

    7. Defaults and foreclosure Defaults and foreclosure activity increased dramatically as easy initial terms expired, home prices failed to go up as anticipated, and ARM interest rates reset higher. Foreclosures accelerated in the United States in late 2006 and triggered a global financial crisis through 2007 and 2008. During 2007, nearly 1.3 million U.S. housing properties were subject to foreclosure activity, up 79% from 2006.

    8. Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) Financial products called mortgage-backed securities (MBS), which derive their value from mortgage payments and housing prices, had enabled financial institutions and investors around the world to invest in the U.S. housing market. Major banks and financial institutions had borrowed and invested heavily in MBS and reported losses of approximately US$435 billion as of 17 July 2008.

    9. Actions of central banks and governments The liquidity and solvency concerns regarding key financial institutions drove central banks to take action to provide funds to banks to encourage lending to worthy borrowers and to restore faith in the commercial paper markets, which are integral to funding business operations. Governments also bailed out key financial institutions (such as $85 billion emergency loan to AIG), assuming significant additional financial commitments.

    10. Cut interest rates and economic stimulus packages The risks to the broader economy created by the housing market downturn and subsequent financial market crisis were primary factors in several decisions by central banks around the world to cut interest rates and governments to implement economic stimulus packages. These actions were designed to stimulate economic growth and inspire confidence in the financial markets.

    11. Effects on global stock markets Effects on global stock markets due to the crisis have been dramatic. Between 1 January and 11 October 2008, owners of stocks in U.S. corporations had suffered about $8 trillion in losses, as their holdings declined in value from $20 trillion to $12 trillion. Losses in other countries have averaged about 40%.

    12. Pressure on consumer spending Losses in the stock markets and housing value declines place further downward pressure on consumer spending, a key economic engine. Leaders of the larger developed and emerging nations (G20) met in November 2008 to formulate strategies for addressing the crisis.