Outcomes of Functional Analysis • Operational description of undesirable behavior • Prediction of times and situations of undesirable behavior • Definition of function • Identification of variables that maintain undesirable behavior
Objective of Functional Analysis • Not to define and eliminate (eliminative) • To understand structure and function of behavior to teach effective alternative (educative)
Understanding Behavior Problems • Similar behaviors occur in everyone • Nearly all behavior serves a purpose • Problem behaviors are adaptations • Not all behaviors will respond to the same intervention techniques.
Functional Behavior Analysis • Attempts to discover which factors in environment maintain the difficult behavior • Attempts to determine the function of the behavior • Strategies to complete include: interview, observation, and manipulation/experimentation
Steps to functional analysis of behavior • Step One: What behavior • Describe • Determine priority and degree of need for intervention • Level one -- urgent • Level two -- serious • Level three -- excess behavior
Step Two • Identifying Circumstances • When does the behavior occur • When does the behavior not occur • How often does the behavior occur • With whom does the behavior occur • Where does the behavior occur • Where does the behavior occur • Where does the behavior not occur
Step Two (con’t) • Identifying circumstances • Setting events (biologic, social, physical) • Events that occur distant from the behavior • Individualized for each person; understanding these requires communication with families or other significant persons • Can’t always change but knowledge of will help with adaptations
Step Three -- Why • Determining function and purpose of behavior • Primary purposes: • Escape • Tangible • Attention • Sensory • Methodology: interview (ecological events interview), observation (motivation assessment scale)
Functions of Behavior • Escape: from person, task, environment, etc. • Tangible: desire for a specific item or activity • Attention: desire for attention from peers, adults, can include “power” • Sensory: the behavior feels good or meets a sensory need.
Functions of behavior • Escape: behavior usually occurs in response to specific person, event or requests to perform activity. • Tangible: behavior often occurs when something has been denied or taken away -- it is not person or event specific • Attention: behaviors usually occurs when specific individuals are present -- may be all the time if the desire is for attention from peers -- it is person specific -- not event or location. • Sensory: behaviors occur anytime, anywhere--not person, event or location specific but may occur more often when under stress
Functions of Behavior • Behaviors may result from a combination of function • Escape and sensory are often related to circumstances that are stressful or boring • Attention and escape may result from difficult/boring curricular demands and not much attention • Tangible in combination with any of the others may be a result of boredom. • Combinations of 2 or more functions require a careful look at curricular requirements, basic classroom management, and availability of noncontingent reinforcement.
Step Four -- Function Test • Design the test • Test • Observe • Reassess • Look for natural opportunities to test