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THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT
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THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT

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  1. THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT 1890 - 1920

  2. ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM • As America entered into the 20th century, middle class reformers addressed many social problems • Work conditions, rights for women and children, economic reform, environmental issues and social welfare were a few of these issues

  3. OBJECTIVES: • 1. Causes of the Progressive Movement • 2. Analyze the role Journalists played in the Progressive Movement • 3. What were some of the social reforms • 4. What were some of the political reforms

  4. 1.PROTECT SOCIAL WELFARE • Industrialization in the late 19th century was largely unregulated • Employers felt little responsibility toward their workers • As a result Settlement homes and churches served the community • Also the YMCA and Salvation Army took on service roles

  5. 2. PROMOTE MORAL DEVELOPMENT • Some reformers felt that the answer to societies problems was personal behavior • They proposed such reforms as prohibition • Groups wishing to ban alcohol included the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

  6. 3. CREATE ECONOMIC REFORM • The Panic of 1893 prompted some Americans to question the capitalist economic system • As a result some workers embraced socialism • Eugene Debs organized the American Socialist Party in 1901 Debs encouraged workers to reject American Capitalism

  7. 4. FOSTERING EFFICIENCY Many Progressive leaders put their faith in scientific principles to make society better In Industry, Frederick Taylor began using time & motion studies to improve factory efficiency Taylorism became an Industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly

  8. PART 2: LIFESTYLE

  9. American Lifestyles at the turn of the Century • Annual wage of American workers: $400-$500 • Cook: $5/week or $260/year • Maid: $3.50/week or $180/year

  10. FACTORY WAGES • MASSACHUSETTS MILL PAID 14 CENTS/HOUR • NATION’S STEEL WORKERS less than 18 cents/hour • TOOK $800 /YEAR TO SUPPORT A FAMILY = 110 HOURS/WEEK

  11. MILLIONAIRES • 1900: 1% of population owned over 80% of the wealth • Andrew Carnegie earned over $23,000,000 (no income Tax )

  12. Expenditures of the wealthy • Houses (mansions) • “Country” Houses: Newport, Rhode Island, Long Island • Art objects • Entertainment (lavish)

  13. Breakers: Rockefeller

  14. Carnegie Mansion

  15. PART 3: WHY AND WHO OF THE PROGRESSIVE ERA

  16. FOUR GOALS OF REFORMERS • 1) Protect Social Welfare • 2) Promote Moral Improvement • 3) Create Economic Reform • 4) Foster Efficiency

  17. CAUSES OF PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT • CORRUPT GOVERNMENT • POLITICAL MACHINES • MUCKRAKER WRITINGS • GROWTH OF EDUCATED MIDDLE CLASS

  18. Progressives targeted a varietyof issues and problems. • corrupt politicalmachines • trusts andmonopolies • inequities • Safety/labor practices • city services • women’s suffrage

  19. PROGRESSIVES • Middle-class, white urban dwellers • Political leaders • Writers • Former Populists

  20. Who were the progressives? • Progressive leaders emerged from every walk of life including the poor, the middle, and the wealthy that was acting for the good of society. • These people believed that industrialization and urbanization had created terrible social and political problems.

  21. So who do they target to improve society? • The progressive movement sought to use modern ideas to improve society. • They realized that if they wanted society to improve, they would have to get help from the government. • The laissez-faire attitude of the government would have to end.

  22. Change needed: • Government had to play a greater role in regulating business, public health and safety

  23. PART 4: HOW????

  24. MUCKRAKERS • Journalists whose writings began in the late 1800s • Exposed corruption in business and politics

  25. MUCKRAKERS CRITICIZE BIG BUSINESS Though most progressives did not embrace socialism, many writers saw the truth in Debs’ criticism Journalists known as “Muckrakers” exposed corruption in business Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil Company’s cut-throat methods of eliminating competition Ida Tarbell Some view Michael Moore as a modern muckraker

  26. THE JUNGLE • UPTON SINCLAIR

  27. Described in gory detail the unhealthy practices in meatpacking plants

  28. POPULAR MAGAZINES • McClure’s • Cosmopolitan

  29. PROGRESSIVES • Jacob Riis • Exposed • Tenement housing

  30. The Jungle; Upton Sinclair

  31. THE JUNGLE

  32. PART 5: LABOR ISSUES

  33. PROTECTING WORKING CHILDREN • As the number of child workers rose, reformers worked to end child labor • Children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue • Nearly every state limited or banned child labor by 1918

  34. EFFORTS TO LIMIT HOURS • The Supreme Court and the states enacted or strengthened laws reducing women’s hours of work • Progressives also succeeded in winning worker’s compensation to aid families of injured workers

  35. Settlement Houses • Jane Addams

  36. Social Reforms

  37. Social Reforms • Safer working conditions • Shorter work days

  38. Social Reforms: • Social Gospel: Guides for reform • Settlement Houses • Community Center • Improvement in education

  39. FRANCES PERKINS • DAUGHTER OF FACTORY OWNER • Triangle Shirt Factory Fire

  40. RISE of SWEATSHOPS • Violates 2 or more of the basic labor laws: • Child Labor • Minimum wage abuse/overtime • Fire safety

  41. Sweatshops Today? • Department of Labor: • Over 50% of U.S. garment factories are sweatshops. NY,Ca, Dallas, Miami, Atlanta • Nike, Gap

  42. Garment Sales controlled by: • 5 corporations: • Wal-Mart • JC Penney • Sears • May Company: Lord & Taylor, Hechts • Federated Dept Stores: Macy, Steins, Bloomingdales

  43. Nike Sweatshops

  44. PART 6: REFORMS AND LAWS

  45. National Changes • laws establishing federal regulation of meat-packing, • Drug • railroad industries • anti-trust laws. • lowered the tariff, • legislation to improve working condition