Job Analysis A Prelude to Recruitment and Placement
The Nature of Job Analysis Job Analysis Defined Uses of Job Analysis Information Steps in Job Analysis Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information Introduction The Interview Questionnaire Observation Participant Diary/Logs U.S. Civil Service Procedure Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques Using Multiple Sources of Information Chapter Outline
Writing Job Descriptions Job Identification Job Summary Relationships Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Working Conditions and Physical Environment Writing Job Specifics Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel Job Specifications Based on Judgment Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs Why Managers are De-jobbing Their Companies Chapter Outline(continued)
After Studying This Chapter,You Should Be Able To: • Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how it’s used • Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information • Write job descriptions including summaries and job functions using the Internet and traditional methods • Write job specificationsusing the Internet as well as your judgment. • Explain job analysis in a “jobless” world, including what it means and how it’s done in practice
Part 1: The Nature of Job Analysis • Job analysis defined • Uses of job analysis information • Steps in job analysis
Service-Oriented Strategy • Change job descriptions, top to bottom • Change recruiting • Philosophy: Our commitment to satisfying customers and creating shareholder value directs virtually every decision we make. • Working at U.S. Bank (next slide)
What it Means to Work at U.S. Bancorp “Working at U.S. Bancorp means that each employee must take responsibility for providing outstanding service, understanding their individual jobs, and performing them at the highest level. In the end, it's the personal commitment of employees that helps us deliver results for our customers, company, shareholders and community.”
Job Analysis – What is it and how is it used? The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Check this “A+” site out and list some of the purposes for which job analysis is used.
Jobs: Analyze, Describe and Provide Specifications • Determining duties and skills • Listing job duties, responsibilities, reporting, conditions, supervision • “Human requirements”
Are there Legal Issues Related to Job Analysis? • Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act • Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972) • Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) • Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
What Information do I Collect? • Work activities • Human behaviors • Machines, tools, equipment and work aids • Performance standards • Job context • Human requirements
Work activities • Cleaning • Selling • Teaching • Painting • How, why and when the activities are performed
Human behaviors • Sensing • Communicating • Deciding • Writing • Job demands • Lifting • Walking • Jumping jacks?
Machines, Tools, Equipment, Work Aids • Products made • Materials processed • Knowledge • Services
Performance Standards Check out these sites for samples of work standards. What are some of the common threads? • National Health and Safety • Job descriptions and performance standards
Job Context • Working conditions • Schedule • Organizational context • Social context
Human Requirements • Job-related knowledge and skills • Education • Training • Work experience • Personal attributes • Aptitudes • Physical characteristics • Personality • Interests
Uses of Job Analysis Information Job Analysis Job Description and Job Specification Recruiting and Selection Decisions Performance Appraisal Job Evaluation— Wage and Salary Decisions (Compensation) Training Requirements Figure 3-1
Uses of Job Analysis Information • Recruitment and selection • Compensation • Performance Appraisal • Training • Discovering unassigned duties • EEO compliance
Recruitment and Selection Executive recruiting Electronic recruiting Monster International How to recruit Assessment and selection
Compensation • Job value • Salary • Bonus • Relative job worth
Performance Appraisal • How to do it • Standards • Self-appraisal • The discussion • Setting goals • How to get a raise
Training The job description should show the activities and skills—and therefore the training—that the job requires.
Discovering Unassigned Duties Job analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties.
EEO Compliance EEO Compliance Job analysis also plays a big role in EEO compliance
Steps in Job Analysis • Decide how to use the information • Review relevant background information • Select representative positions • Conduct the analysis • Verify with the worker and supervisor • Develop a job description and job specification
Process Chart for Analyzing Work Flow Input from Plant Managers Input from Suppliers Job Under Study— Inventory Control Clerk Inventory Output to Plant Managers Information Output to Plant Managers
Part 2: Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information • The interview • Questionnaire • Observation • Participant diary/logs • U.S. Civil Service Procedure • Quantitative techniques • Multiple sources of information
Collecting Job Analysis Information • Joint effort between HR, the worker and the supervisor • “SME’s” (Subject Matter Experts)
Employees may be Concerned Because of – • Resistance to change • Possible changes to job duties • Changes to pay • Lack of trust of consequences • The same job title may have different responsibilities and pay rates in different departments
Widely Used: The Interview • Individual interviews with each employee • Group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job • Supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job.
Sample Interview Questions • What is the job being performed? • What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do? • What physical locations do you work in? • What are the education, experience, skill, and [where applicable] certification and licensing requirements? • In what activities do you participate? • What are the job’s responsibilities and duties?
Sample Interview Questions (continued) • What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work? • What are your responsibilities? What are the environmental and working conditions involved? • What are the job’s physical demands? The emotional and mental demands? • What are the health and safety conditions? • Are you exposed to any hazards or unusual working conditions?
Interview Guidelines • The job analyst and supervisor should identify the workers who know the job best and would be objective • Establish a rapport with the interviewee • Follow a structured guide or checklist • Ask a worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence • Review and verify data
How to Conduct a Questionnaire Session • Use a specific questionnaire • Establish rapport • Follow a structured approach • List duties in order of importance or frequency of occurrence • Review and verify the data
PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY POSITION DESCRIPTION * * PLEASE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING THIS FORM * * ( ) New ( ) Revised SECTION 1. POSITION INFORMATION a.Class Title: b.Class No.: c.Effective Date: d.Position No.: e.Working Title: f.Work Unit: g.Agency No.: h.Employee Name: i.Work Location (City‑County): _________________________________________________________________________________ j. Position: ( ) Permanent ( ) Seasonal ( ) Limited Duration ( ) Academic Year ( ) Full Time ( ) Part Time ( ) Intermittent ( ) Job Share _________________________________________________________________________________ k. FLSA: ( ) Exempt ( ) Non‑Exempt l. Eligible for Overtime: ( ) Yes ( ) No _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 2. PROGRAM/POSITION INFORMATION a. Describe the program in which this job exists. Include program purpose, who's affected, size, and scope. Include relationship to agency mission. b. Describe the purpose of this position, and how it functions within this program, by completing this statement: The purpose of this job/position is to . . .
SECTION 3. DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES List major duties. Note percentage of time duties are performed. If this is an existing position, mark "N" for new duties or "R" for revised duties. % of Time N/R DUTIES _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 4. WORKING CONDITIONS Describe special working conditions, if any, that are a regular part of this job. Include frequency of exposure to these conditions. ________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 5. GUIDELINES a. List any established guidelines used to do this job, such as state or federal laws or regulations, policies, manuals or desk procedures. b. How are these guidelines used to perform the job? SECTION 6. WORK CONTACTS With whom outside of co-workers in this work unit must this position regularly come in contact? Who ContactedHowPurposeHow Often? SECTION 7. JOB‑RELATED DECISION MAKING Describe the kinds of decisions likely to be made by this position. Indicate affect of these decisions where possible.
SECTION 8. REVIEW OF WORK Who reviews the work of this position? (List classification title and position number.) How? How often? Purpose of the review? SECTION 9. SUPERVISORY DUTIES TO BE COMPLETED ONLY FOR POSITIONS IN MANAGEMENT SERVICE a. How many employees are directly supervised by this position? _______ Through Subordinate Supervisors? _______ b. Which of the following supervisory/management activities does this job perform? ( ) Plans Work ( ) Responds to Grievances ( ) Hires/Fires (or Effectively Recommends) ( ) Assigns Work ( ) Disciplines/Rewards ( ) Prepares and Signs Performance Appraisals ( ) Approves Work SECTION 10. ADDITIONAL JOB‑RELATED INFORMATION Any other comments that would add to an understanding of this position: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: List any special mandatory recruiting requirements for this position: BUDGET AUTHORITY: If this position has authority to commit agency operating money, indicate in what area, how much (biennially) and type of funds: _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 11. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART Attach a current organizational chart. See instructions for detail to be included on the chart. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employee Signature Date Supervisor Signature Date _________________________________________________ Appointing Authority Signature Date
Observation • Observation may be combined with interviewing • Take complete notes • Talk with the person being observed – explain what is happening and why • Ask questions
Diaries and Logs • Time-consuming • Self-reporting • Remembering what was done earlier • Can use dictating machines and pagers
U.S. Civil Service Commission • Knowledge • Skills • Abilities • Physical activities • Special environmental conditions • Typical work incidents • Worker interest areas
Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques • Position Analysis Questionnaire • The U.S. Department of Labor approach • Functional job analysis
Sample Position Analysis Questionnaire Figure 3 - 4
Position Analysis Questionnaire Items • Information Input • Mental Processes • Work Output • Relationships with Other Persons • Job Context • Other Job Characteristics
U.S. Department of Labor Procedure • Data examples • Synthesizing • Copying • People examples • Instructing • Persuading • Things examples • Setting up • Tending
Functional Job Analysis • Used beginning in the 1940’s • Seven scales to describe what workers do in jobs: (1) Things (2) Data (3) People (4) Worker Instructions (5) Reasoning (6) Math (7) Language
Part 3: Writing Job Descriptions • Job Identification • Job Summary • Relationships • Responsibilities and Duties • Standards of Performance • Working Conditions and Physical Environment
Sample Job Description Figure 3 - 7