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Visceral Leishmaniasis

Visceral Leishmaniasis

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Visceral Leishmaniasis

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  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis Collin Price Spring 2011

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis – also known as Kala Azar – is a systemic disease that primarily affects the liver, spleen, and bone marrow

  3. Symptoms of VL include hepatosplenomegaly, high fever, anemia, and weight loss

  4. Like every disease we have studied, visceral Leishmaniasisis a disease of the poor • http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/photogallery/2011/11india/image001.jpg

  5. VL is endemic in 88 countries, with 90% of cases occurring in Brazil, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sudan.

  6. The causal agent is a protozoan of genus Leishmania - related to organisms causing Sleeping Sickness, Chagas, and Malaria

  7. Leishmaniasis is transmitted via a blood sucking sand fly of the species Phlebotominae

  8. Look familiar?

  9. Proteins on the surface of the promastigote allow the organism to escape lysis by the complement system

  10. Once inside the macrophage, the protozoan relies on a trans-membrane pump to acquire iron for metabolism

  11. The best way to diagnose infection with Leishmaniasisis visualization of the amastigotes in blood or aspirates from infected tissue http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/parasit06/paraav/images/10-21.jpg

  12. Classically, therapy has involved treatment with antimonial compounds

  13. Miltefosine might be the answer, with a 95% cure rate!

  14. 35 Countries around the world have reported cases of VL/HIV co-infection http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/burden/hiv_coinfection/en/leishmaniasis_hiv_countries.gif

  15. Rescue in Sudan “Where else in the world could 50% of the population die without anyone knowing?” -Dr. Jill Seaman

  16. References • Pictures • http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/305800/enlarge (SEM) • http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/archives/NSEP/Brazil2002/leishmania/Images/Leish91.jpg • http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/archives/NSEP/Brazil2002/leishmania/Images/Leish91.jpg • http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/leishmaniasis_maps/en/index.html • http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phlebotomus_pappatasi_bloodmeal_begin.jpg • http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v5/n11/images/nrmicro1748-f3.jpg • http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/photogallery/2011/11india/image001.jpg • http://microbeworld.org/images/stories/twip/l_donovani.jpg • http://www.stanford.edu/group/parasites/ParaSites2010/Zach_Wettstein/Development%20of%20Drugs%20for%20the%20Treatment%20of%20Visceral%20Leishmaniasis.html • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_BVAT0FI3vWo/TGf539li0eI/AAAAAAAAAvI/0ReeaJ6VY78/s1600/Leishmania_tropica_7.jpg • http://animal.discovery.com/invertebrates/monsters-inside-me/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-leishmania/images/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-leishmania.jpg

  17. References • Information • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visceral_leishmaniasis#cite_note-Dowell1997-38 • Amanda C Stanley1 and Christian R Engwerda1. Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis. Immunology and Cell Biology (2007) 85, 138–147. doi:10.1038/sj.icb.7100011; published online 5 December 2006 • http://biology-today.com/general-zoology/invertebrate-zoology/structure-of-leishmania/ • Alison M. Shakarian, Glen C. McGugan, Manju B. Joshi, Mary Stromberg, Lauren Bowers, Christine Ganim, Jessica Barowski and Dennis M. Dwyer. Identification, characterization, and expression of a unique secretory lipase from the human pathogen Leishmaniadonovani. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Volume 341, Numbers 1-2, 17-31 • EmanuelaHandman. Leishmaniasis: Current Status of Vaccine Development. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. April 2001 14:229-243. • Christian R Engwerda, Paul M Kaye, Organ-specific immune responses associated with infectious disease, Immunology Today, Volume 21, Issue 2, 1 February 2000, Pages 73-78 • J RománLuque-Ortega, José M Saugar, Cristina Chiva, David Andreu, Luis Rivas. Identification of new leishmanicidal peptide lead structures by automated real-time monitoring of changes in intracellular ATP. Biochem. J. (2003) 375 (221-30)