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Part Two

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  1. Part Two Chapter 2 Morphological Structure of English Words

  2. 1. Morphemes • Some basic information about morphemes • The composition of water • water=H2O (hydrogen, oxygen) • 【買】 【賣】 【費】 【貿】 【貸】 【賊】 【賄】 【資】 【賈】 【賃】 【賑】 【賓】 【責】 【貫】 【貪】 【資】 【賜】 【賢】 【財】 【質】 【賺】 【購】 【貨】 【販】 【賸】 • nation national nationalize denationalize denationalization

  3. morpheme词素、语素、形位: • The morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit of language, not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms. A word is the smallest unit of a language that stands alone to communicate meaning. Structurally, however, a word is not the smallest unit because many words can be separated into smaller meaningful units. Words are composed of morphemes. What is usually considered a single word in English may be composed of one or more morphemes:

  4. Examples • One morpheme: nation • Two morphemes: nation-al • Three morphemes: nation-al-ize • Four morphemes: de-nation-al-ize • Five morphemes: de-nation-al-iz-ation • antidisestablishmentarianism (28letters) • 反对教会与国家分开学说 • Six morphemes: anti-, dis-, establish, ment, -arian (…派的(人),…主义的(人)), -ism.

  5. B. Allomorphs • An allomorph(词素变体) is any of the variant forms of a morpheme as conditioned by position or adjoining sounds. (WNWD) For example: • The morpheme of plurality {-s}: /s/ after the sounds /t, p, k/; /z/ after /d, b, g, l/; /iz/ after /s, z, …/ • go: went, gone

  6. -ion/-tion/-sion/-ation are the positional variants of the same suffix. • Verbs ending with the sound /t/ usually take –ion (as in invent, invention); • verbs ending with consonants other than /t/ take –tion (as in describe, description); • verbs ending in –ify and –ize take –ation (as in justify, justification; modernize, modernization); • verbs ending in –d, -de, or –mit, take –sion (as in expansion, decision, omission); there are exceptions: attend, attention; convert, conversion, etc.

  7. A prefix like in- has several variants, its allomorphs are: • im- before p, b, or m (imperfect, imbalance, immobile, but input, impatient, inpatient); • ir- before r (irregular, irresponsible); • il- before l (illogical, illegal); • in- before all other consonants and vowels (inflexible, incomplete).

  8. the allomorphs of the “negative” morpheme: un-, in-, dis-, non, a-, … • the allomorphs of the “plurality” morpheme: • -s, -es, en, -i, …, • the allomorphs of the “past participle” morpheme: • -ed, en, … • allophone: pot, spot, kill, skill, top, stop: • /th/ /t/ • apple, lake: /l| /ł/ • 执著 执着

  9. 2. Classifications of Morphemes • A. Free morphemes and bound morphemes • Free morpheme and bound morpheme自由语素/粘着语素 • A free morpheme can occur alone in a sentence. e.g. man, earth, wind, faith, red, write, …. • A bound morpheme cannot stand by itself in a sentence. It has attached meaning (un-kind, hope-ful) or grammatical meaning (cat-s, slow-ly, walk-ing, call-ed, tall-er). It is bound to other morphemes to form words. • cat, nature, cover cats, natural, discovery

  10. B. Roots and affixes • Alternatively, morphemes may be divided into roots and affixes. • 1. Roots: The base form of a word that cannot further be analyzed without total loss of identity. It is the part of the word left when all the affixes are removed. Naked with cap and shoes taken off? e.g. internationalization ---nation. antidisestablishmentarianism --- establish • (a) Free roots:boy, moon, walk, black • (b) Bound roots:-ceive in conceive, deceive, perceive, receive; -mit in commit, permit, remit; -tain in contain, maintain, retain; -cur in occur, recur, concur

  11. miss, mit=to send(送), to throw(投、掷) missile mission missionary messenger admit admission admittance commit commitment committee commission compromise demise demission dismiss dismissal emit emission emissary intermit, intermittence, intermittent, intermission

  12. manumit manumission • omit omission omissible omissive • permit permission(per- through) • premise • pretermit (preter-=past, beyond) • promising promissory • remiss (re-=back) • remit remittance remitter remittee remittent remission (回复本来的状态) • submit submission submissive • surmise (投掷思考于…之上) • transmit transmission

  13. viv=to live(生活;生存) victual ['vitl] 食物;食品 (保持生命的东西) victualler viand vital vitality vitalize vitamin vivacious vivacity vivarium (-arium cf. aquarium) vivid vivify vivisect vivsection avitminosis (-osis=condition) convivial 欢宴的;快乐的(con-=with乐于共同生存)

  14. revitalize • revitalize revive revival revivfy revivification • reviviscence [revi'visns] 复活、苏醒 • survive survival survivor • CV:curriculum vitae

  15. • 心脏病-心血管病引发猝死-搜狐健康 • • 胡大一教授谈心脏猝死的原因! • • 胡大一教授谈心脏猝死的预防 • • 哪些明星死于心脏病? • 古月、高秀敏、马季、侯耀文

  16. 心电图 心脏学 心脏炎 衷心的 符合 不协调 冠心病 心肌梗塞 心肌衰竭 • 表示“心”的词根有拉丁语的cordis(cor-)和希腊语的cardia(cardio-), 前者多用来构成常用词,后者多用以构成科技词汇(尤其是医学用语) electrocardiogram cardiology carditis cordial accord discord coronary heart disease myocardial infarction myocardia

  17. 贫血 白血病 尿毒症 白细胞,白血球 血友病, 出血不止症 胆固醇 chole+Gr stereos, stiff, solid首先发现于胆石,故取其“固”义+ol 醇 cf. cholera 霍乱 (废)胆汁 alcohol乙醇 • -aemia, -cyte, anaemia leukaemia uraemia leucocyte haemophilia cholesterol  

  18. 2. Affixes (词缀): • (a) Inflectional affixes (or inflectional morphemes) • Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. According to the functions of affixes, we can put them into two groups: inflectional and derivational affixes. • Inflectionis the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness (finite有定的;有限的/infinite), aspect and case, which do not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached. Inflection originally meant “modification” (lit. bending): thus book is modified, by the addition of –s, to books. (Matthews 1997:178) • Inflect: 1. [生]To cause to bend inward使(向内)弯曲;使内折;2. [语]To alter (a word) by inflection.屈折变化,变化字尾,通过词尾变化改变(一词);To alter (the voice) in tone or pitch 变音,在音高和音调上变化;转调

  19. Each set in the following example constitutes a single paradigm ([语](名词、动词等的)词形变化(表);纵聚合关系语言项), that is, a set of grammatically conditioned forms all derived from a single root or stem. e.g. French verb arriver, regarder (Je regarde la télevision.) • j’arrive tu arrives il arrive elle arrive nous arrivons vous arrivez ils arrivent elles arrivent • je regarde tu …

  20. (b) Derivational affixes (or derivational morphemes) • 褒义 贬义 p.26 • 褒义 commendatory, appreciative • 贬义pejorative, derogatory

  21. Inflectional affixes (屈折词缀) Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes: cats, walked, walking, John’s book… Derivational affixes (派生词缀) Affixes added to other morphemes to create new words. They can be further divided into prefixes and suffixes Prefixes(前缀) Suffixes(后缀)

  22. Free • Diagram of morphemes Morphemes Bound root Inflectional Bound Prefix Affixes Derivational Suffix

  23. Both prefixes and suffixes may be grouped according to: • (1) Their linguistic origin: • (2) Their productivity: • Conclusion

  24. desinicization specialize individualistic half-hearted a man of letters downfall power-drunk de-, sino-, -ize, -ation species, -al, -ize in-, divide, -al, -ist, -ic half, heart, -ed a, man, of, letter, -s down, fall power, drink, an allomorph of –ed Exercises

  25. ecocrisis meaningfulness prediction inequality understatement undeveloped downsizing moonscape supernatural eco-, crisis mean, -ing, -ful, -ness pre-, -dict-, -ion -in, equal, -ity -under, state, -ment -un, develop, -ed down, size, -ing moon, -scape -super, nature, -al Exercises

  26. The English word “untouchable” is composed of _____ morphemes. • A. four B. three C. two D. five • The word “modernizers” is composed of ______ morphemes. • A. three B. four C. five D. six • Morphemes that represent “tense ”, “number” “gender”, “case” and so forth are called ____ morphemes. • A. inflectional B. bound C. free D. derivational • The morpheme –er in “teacher”, is _________ • A. bound, grammatical, inflectional • B. bound, lexical, derivational • C. bound, grammatical, derivational • D. lexical, grammatical, inflectional

  27. The smallest unit of meaning in a language is known as a ______. in-, dis, ‘s, -ed, dog bag , • A. morpheme B. syntactic unit • C. phoneme D. grapheme • Which of the following words is NOT formed through clipping? [ ] • A. Dorm B. motel C. Gent D. Zoo • _____ are bound morphemes because they cannot be used as separate words. • A. Roots B. Stems • C. Affixes D. Compounds