TheProtestantReformation Mr. Marston Dominion Christian High School Marietta, GA
Saxony The Holy Roman Empire in the 16c
Reformation: Spiritual Revival in Europe in the 16th century • 1. “sola scriptura” (by scripture alone). Bible is the only authority in matters of faith, life, and conduct. • 2. “sola fide” (by faith alone). Saved by nothing we do, not by anything the church does for us, and not by faith plus anything else • 3. “sola gratia” (by grace alone) • 4. Priesthood of all believers: All believers are priests before Jesus Christ. Direct access to God through Christ. Not necessary for an earthly mediator.
“Problems” with Roman Catholic Church • 1. papal authority and church hierarchy • 2. emphasis on good works • 3. indulgences: church shouldn’t be collecting fees and fines • 4. mediation of Mary and the Saints • 5. Sacraments (except Baptism and Eucharist) • 6. Transubstantiation
Problems” with Roman Catholic Church” cont. • 7. mass as sacrifice • 8. purgatory • 9. prayers for the dead • 10. confessions to priest • 11. Use of Latin in Mass: People wanted to take more active role and understand mass in the vernacular • 12. Corruption of Church: hypocritical clergy: having mistresses, children, etc.
Vocab • 1. Purgatory: “purification.” A place or condition of temporary punishment for those who are not entirely free from faults or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their particular “crime.”
2. transubstantiation: the bread and wine of the Eucharist (Lord’s Supper) turns into the substance of Christ’s body and blood.
Vocab. • 3. An indulgence is a certificate that absolved individuals of the temporal (while on earth) penalties of the sins they had confessed. A buyer could purchase one, either for himself or for one of his deceased relatives in purgatory.
4. Sacraments: rites or ceremonies instituted by Jesus, and observed by the church as a means of or visible signs of grace. The English word sacrament is from the Latin sacramentum, which means to make holy, or to consecrate.
John Wycliffe: Morning Star of the Reformation • Englishman (1320-84) Preacher, scholar, teacher, lecturer, and theologian Believed that the church had moved away from its doctrine and practice Wycliffe opposed the power and wealth of the Roman Church
Wycliffe • Wanted to get rid of corrupt clergy • Didn’t like monastic orders • Criticized practice of confession to priest • Disavowed doctrine of transubstantiation (the Eucharistic elements were transformed into the body and blood of Christ)
Wycliffe continued • Sola scriptura: bible as supreme authority • Wycliffe bible: first complete translation of the bible into English in 1382. * Only Jerome’s Latin Vulgate prior to English translation.
Wycliffe continued • Viewed Christ as the head of the Church, not the pope • Opposed Peter’s Pence: the annual tax given by English people to the papacy • Died of a stroke • Catholic Church condemned his teachings and persecuted his supporters, or Lollards.
John Huss (1369-1415) • Bohemian Priest: (present day Czech Republic) • Served as rector (head) of Charles University in Prague. • Main preacher at fashionable chapel in Prague
Huss’ beliefs • 11. priests were not a holy and privileged group • 2. laity could not drink wine, only priests could. Hus shared the cup with his followers: chalice (cup) became symbol for their movement. • 3. similar to Wycliffe: Bohemian students studying in England brought back writings of Wycliffe to Bohemia.
Huss questioned by church for beliefs • Council of Constance (1414): Huss invited to “defend” position • Was arrested and charged with heresy. • Huss asked to recant (to renounce beliefs) • Huss was burned at the stake as a heretic in 1415.
Hussites: Supporters of John Hus Raised an army to fight against the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia Resistance lasted 20 years Hussites established the Utraquist church, in which cup and wafer were share by all worshippers at Mass Resistance came to an end when they were defeated in battle.
Martin Luther • Luther’s upbringing was filled with harsh discipline (beaten as a child) • Attended the University of Erfurt to study law • Became Augustinian monk • Roman Catholic priest • Philosophy instructor at the University of Wittenberg • Saw wickedness and corruption in himself
Indulgences and Johann Tetzel • Pope Leo X: son of Lorenzo D’Medici, who in 1514, launched a campaign to finish St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome • Pope needed to raise money for the construction of the church • 1517: Johann Tetzel, a German Dominican priest, began selling indulgences near Luther’s parish church in Wittenberg “As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, right then a soul from purgatory springs.”
Special dispensations • 11. Church had granted certificates of pardon in the past • Those who did special work • Those who gave money to charity • Those who fought in crusade Now, indulgences were sold to raise money for the Catholic Church’s “pet projects” Luther didn’t want to attack the Catholic Church or the pope, just the misuse of indulgences
Luther nails 95 theses (statements) to Castle church door in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517
Debate at Leipzig (1519) • John Eck: Roman Catholic Scholar vs. Martin Luther used sola scriptura as defense Luther was excommunicated
Road to Worms • 1. Luther was under the protection of Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony. Frederick did not want any of his subjects to stand trial outside of Germany, especially Italy. • 2. Papal Bull of Excommunication was thrown into a bonfire by Luther • 3. Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, called a meeting at Worms to appear before the German diet (legislative assembly)
Diet of Worms 4-17-1521 • 1. Luther was not given an opportunity to defend himself • 2. Asked would he recant his heretical teachings • 3. Luther did not recant and was branded an outlaw
Edict of Worms • Luther’s writings were banned, no one could give him aid, and he had to be turned over to the authorities • He could be killed without legal recourse
Peasants war (1524-1525) • Peasants attacked nobility in Luther’s name. Luther did not support the violence.
Augsburg Confession • L11530: Doctrinal statements of the Lutheran church as drafted by Philipp Melanchthon. • This became the doctrinal standard for the Lutheran church. • Remains its most highly respected statement of faith
A mighty fortress is our God • Song
Spreading of Reformation Ideals • Switzerland • Ulrich Zwingli: Swiss Protestant Reformer Roman Catholic priest in Zurich Sola fide Wrote 67 Conclusions Rejected Roman Catholic mass, celibacy of priests, purgatory, and the pope
Meeting at Marburg: No resolution • Meeting between Luther and Zwingli to create united Protestant front • Tried to settle doctrinal differences Major difference was the Eucharist Zwingli: Lord’s supper is only a symbolic remembrance of Christ’s death Luther: Christ is present in, with and under the elements of the bread and wine consubstantiation
Anabaptists: Baptize again • 1. Opponents of infant baptism • 2. Only true believers should be members of the local church • 3. Separation of church and state • 4. Pacifists: (no war) • 5. Opposed doctrine of justification by faith alone