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World War I:

World War I:

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World War I:

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  1. World War I: Lecture #2: Winning the War

  2. Total War • Total War- means that societies and economies had to be completely realigned to pursue the war effort • The channeling of a nations resources into a war effort

  3. Economic Impact • Both sides had to recruit, arm, transport and supply armies that numbered in the millions • Conscription-all young men drafted into the armed forces • Governments raised taxes and borrowed lots of money to pay for the war • People had to ration food, gas, and shoes

  4. Propaganda War • Total war meant controlling public opinion • Censorship • Keep casuality figures from public, restricted literature, movies, and the arts • Propaganda-spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause • Examples: British and French Press told of German “atrocities” in Belgium • Germany created a “hymn of hate” against England and encouraged people to sign it

  5. Impact on Women • As men left to go fight, women filled the job void and kept the economies going. • They worked in factories, on farms, as nurses • After the war, women had to quit their jobs because the men came home. • Eventually, their efforts in the war landed them the right to vote

  6. Collapsing Moral • Because of the new types of warfare, both sides were losing moral because of long casualty lists, food shortages, and leadership failure • Troops began to mutiny and desert • Russia suffered devastating losses which led to a revolution in 1917 and withdraw from the war • Russia’s withdraw had an immediate impact on the war, Germany could now just concentrate on one front.

  7. The US Declares War • This was the major turning point in the war. • Unrestricted Submarine warfare -Germany torpedoed the Lusitania, a British Liner carrying 128 Americans. • President Woodrow Wilson denounced Germany • Americans had cultural ties with Allies and generally supported their cause

  8. The US Declares War • Zimmerman Note- Britain intercepted a message from Germany to Mexico, telling Mexico that if they helped, Germany would help them gain lost lands to the US ie New Mexico and Arizona • Went the note went public, anti-German feeling intensified in the US • In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany • By 1918, 2 million Americanshad joined the armed services and were sent across the Atlantic • Since both sides in Europe were exhausted from trench warfare and major losses, the Americansprovided a much needed morale boost to the allies

  9. US Declares War • Wilson’s 14 Points- a list of demands to the international community to end the war and prevent future wars • Called for • Freedom on the Seas • Large-scale reduction of arms • End to secret treaties • General association of nations • Self-Determination -the right of people to choose their own form of government