Chapter 18The Progressive Movement Section 4 The Wilson Years
The Election of 1912 • Republican conservatives supported Taft. • Republican progressives supported T. Roosevelt. • Taft gained the Republican nomination.
The Republican Party Splits • Roosevelt ran as an independent for the Progressive Party. • The election came down to 2 progressives: • Theodore Roosevelt • Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson (New Jersey Gov.)
Roosevelt’s New Nationalism was a complete line of reforms that favored legislation to protect women and children in the workforce and workers’ compensation for those injured on the job. “New Freedom” vs. “New Nationalism”
Wilson’s New Freedom, supported free enterprise and criticized Roosevelt for a program that Wilson felt supported monopolies. “New Freedom” vs. “New Nationalism”
Election Results of 1912 • Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican vote, giving Wilson the electoral college win. • First time since 1892 a Democrat had been president.
Regulating the Economy • During Wilson’s 8 years, he issued reforms that affected tariffs, the banking system, the trusts, and workers’ right.
Reforming Tariffs • 1913 – Underwood Tariff – reduced the average tariff on imported goods to about ½ of what it had been in the 1890s. • It included a provision for levying an income tax, or a direct tax on the earnings of individuals and corporations.
Reforming the Banks • Had not been a central bank system since the 1830s. • Wilson supported the Federal Reserve System where the banks would have to keep some of their deposits in a reserve to protect customers’ money. • 1913 – Federal Reserve Act became one of the most important pieces of legislation in American history.
Antitrust Action • 1914 – Wilson asked Congress to create the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to monitor American business. • Investigated companies and issued involved in unfair trade practices. • Progressives responded by passing the Clayton Antitrust Act that put a ban on tying agreements and price discrimination.
Federal Aid and Social Welfare • 1916 – Keating-Owen Child Labor Act – prohibited children under the age of 14 from working in factories. • Adamson Act – established an 8-hr workday for RR workers. • Federal Farm Loan Act – provided farmers w/ long term loans at low interest rates.
The Legacy of Progressivism • By the end of the era, American looked to the government to play an active role in regulating the economy and solving problems.
Limits of Progressivism • Failed to address African-America reform issues. • 1909 – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded. • Demanded full political rights and responsibilities and an end to racial discrimination.
End of Chapter 18 Next: TEST