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Personal Fitness 10

Personal Fitness 10

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Personal Fitness 10

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  1. Personal Fitness 10 Nutrition & Wellness Notes HSS1020

  2. Overweight vs Overfat • A person could actually be over fat but not overweight • If we use absolute body weight as a measure of body composition, the numbers can be misleading • Muscle is more dense than fat • A piece of fat that is the same size as a piece of muscle will weigh considerably less than the muscle • If two people weigh the same and one has more fat and less muscle than the other person, who will be larger? • The person with more fat will be larger

  3. What is a calorie? • A calorie is a measure of the energy potential of food • All macronutrients have calories in them. Knowing how many calories are in the foods we eat will help us balance out our calories so we do not gain unwanted weight • Consuming calories is inevitable as we need the calorie energy from foods to perform any activity we do. • Consuming the right calories is the hard part

  4. What are macronutrients? • Macronutrients are nutrients in food that give us energy in the form of calories • Macronutrients can be broken down into the following 3 nutrients: • Carbohydrates, Protein & Fat • Each nutrient is metabolized (digested) by our bodies differently • Carbohydrates—4 calories/gram—digested in 15 minutes – 2 hours • Protein—4 calories/gram—digested in 2 hours • Fat—9 calories/gram—digested in 4+ hours

  5. What are Micronutrients? • Micronutrients are comprised of vitamins & minerals • Vitamins and minerals are vital for the proper functioning of our bodies • Review the following charts on Vitamins and Minerals to provide an example of each. • Be sure to write down the actual benefit of your Vitamin and Mineral example

  6. Micronutrient Requirements Vitamins

  7. Micronutrient Requirements Vitamins

  8. Micronutrient Requiements Minerals

  9. Micronutrient Requirements Minerals

  10. Sensation of Hunger vs Appetite • Hunger is a sensation produced in your body as a result of chemical changes in your body • When your body reaches a certain level of blood sugar (low) it reacts with hunger pangs • Hunger instinctively protects us from depleting energy stores • Appetite is defined as the desire for food • An example of the difference between hunger & appetite • Hunger is eating a small bowl of pasta to satisfy your needs • Appetite is going back for seconds even though the first helping was enough to satisfy you

  11. Canada Food Guide

  12. Role of Water in the Body • Provides balance –Homeostasis- • Absorption of water soluble substances in our diet • Transportation of nutrition to the target cells • Removal of waste from metabolisms of the body

  13. Function of the Thirst Mechanism • Triggered by water losses in the body • Leads to a conscious sensation of thirst • Feelings of thirst do not surface until significant losses of water occur • You could be dehydrated before you feel thirsty • Drink fluids even if you do not feel thirsty

  14. Signs & Symptoms of Dehydration • Thirst • Loss of appetite • Dry skin • Flushing of skin • Dark colored urine • Dry mouth • Fatigue/Weakness • Chills • Head rushes

  15. Effect of Dehydration on Performance • Poor concentration • Struggling to concentrate in class? • Headaches • Lots of headaches? • Impaired sleep • Yawning/sleepy during class/lack energy? • Dry skin • Joint problems • Sore eyes • Digestive disorders

  16. Steps to Preventing Dehydration • Drink water regularly throughout day • Drink water when you get up • Drink water if you are consuming alcohol • Alcohol is very dehydrating • Drink water after going to the bathroom • Replenish supplies • Drink some water before having coffee, soft drinks • These drinks can be dehydrating • Drink water when you feel hungry • Dehydration is often mistaken for hunger

  17. Metabolism & Metabolic Rate • Our bodies get energy to do things from food we eat through metabolism • Chemical reactions in the body convert the fuel from food to energy • The body breaks food down into sugar • The next step is to break the sugar down so that the energy released can be distributed to cells in the body • Metabolism is a constant process • The only time metabolism stops is when we die • The higher our Metabolic Rate the healthier we are • The greater our fitness the higher our metabolic rate

  18. Metabolic Rate vs Muscle Mass • Building muscle raises our Metabolic Rate • Higher metabolic rates result in more efficient processing of food • More food goes through us rather than stick to us • Bigger Muscles mean: • More ability to store glycogen for high energy situations • Higher rates of energy consumption • Less storage of excess energy as fat • Higher metabolism means: • Greater fat burning capabilities

  19. Starvation Diets vs Metabolic Rate • Starving our bodies has a wicked twist • Starving our body results in the absorption of muscle protein by our bodies • This loss of muscle mass results in a lowering of our metabolic rate • The lowering of our metabolic rate in turn results in the body storing more fat on our body • Starving our body has the wicked twist of increasing our % fat relative to our muscle mass • As a result we weigh less but have a higher fat to muscle ratio • The opposite effect we are looking for in a diet

  20. Metabolism & Nutrient Utilization

  21. Nutrient Utilization during rest • The higher our fitness level the higher our metabolic rate • The higher our metabolic rate the more fat we metabolize during rest • The higher our metabolic rate the more fat we metabolize during recovery from exercise • The harder the exercise the more fat metabolized during recovery

  22. Nutrient Utilization during exercise • The higher our fitness level the higher our metabolic rate • The greater the intensity of our exercise the less fat is utilized the more carbohydrates used • As our body works anaerobically (without oxygen/the hardest workouts we can do) our body uses only carbs as it is the cleanest most desirable nutrient for conversion to energy • Our body uses fat as a source of energy during exercises between rest & 50% exertion

  23. Metabolism & Aging • As we age our metabolism slows down • As a result we tend to lose muscle mass & store fat • As you age you have to start eating better • Food sticks to you rather than go through you as you age • This process starts as early as graduation from high school • As you get older it is harder to build muscle thus increase metabolism • Resistance training and other weight bearing exercises to build and maintain muscle are vital for people as they age to help offset the effects of metabolism that slows down

  24. Energy Systems vs Activity Level • Low activity levels use Slow Twitch Fibers in the Aerobic System (50-70% exertion) • Energy indirectly comes from the from food we eat • Medium High activity levels use Fast Twitch Type IIa Fibers in the Oxidative Glycolytic System (70-90% exertion) • Energy directly comes from the food we eat with oxygen • All out activity levels use Fast Twitch Type IIx Fibers in the Glycolytic Anaerobic System (90-100%) • Energy comes directly from the food we eat without Oxygen

  25. Nutritional Requirements vs Stages of Physical Activity • At the lowest level of activity our body uses fat stores (<50%) • We can use glycogen stores in our muscles for up to 2 hours of medium high activity (70-90% Exertion) • Larger muscles mean larger glycogen storage tanks • Eating a high carb diet as a pre game or activity meal helps fill glycogen in our muscles • After 2 hours of medium high activity (70-90% Exertion) we need to provide our body with sugar for energy as there is no glycogen left • Eat foods high in sugars during your activity so your body can put this into energy within 15 minutes • Power Gels, fruits

  26. Fiber and Good Health • We need to eat foods high in fiber to maintain good health • Fiber helps keep our blood healthy • Fiber helps food pass through us • The longer food stays in our digestive tract the more bad things our body absorbs • High metabolic rates and fiber in foods help food pass through us more efficiently • Fiber helps us eliminate foods more efficiently

  27. Soluble Fiber vs Insoluble Fiber • Soluble Fiber • Attracts to and dissolves in water • Slows digestion making us feel fuller sooner • Preventing us from over eating • Proven to lower blood cholesterol • Reduces risk of heart desease • Proven to lower blood sugar levels • Reduces risk of Type II Diabetes • Insoluble Fiber • Does not dissolve in water adding bulk to your stool • Helps food pass through us

  28. Examples of Soluble & Insoluble Fiber • Soluble Fiber • Oats, Oat bran & Oat meal • Barley, Flaxseed & Psyllium • Peas, Beans, Lentils, Nuts & Seeds • Citrus Fruits, Strawberries & Apples • Insoluble Fiber • Whole Wheat, Wheat Bran & Whole Grains • Nuts & Vegetables

  29. High Energy Formula ‘60-70% Carbs – 20-30% Protein – 10% Fat’ • When ever we need the food we eat to be processed fast we should consume foods with a high energy formula (Pre and Post Workout/Game Meals) • These foods should be high in Carbohydrates • These foods should be moderate in Protein • These foods should be low in Fat • Examples of High Energy Formula Foods are: • Fruits, Vegetables, Pasta, Breads, Lean Meats, Lean Dairy Products • Spaghetti with tomato sauce, Lean Sandwiches, Yogurt, Milk

  30. Steady Energy Formula 40-50% Carbs – 30-40% Protein – 20-30% Fat • When ever we need the food we eat to be processed over a longer time we should consume foods with a steady energy formula (most meals and snacks throughout the day should be steady energy) • These foods should be moderate-high in Carbohydrates • These foods should be moderate in Protein • These foods should be moderate in Fat • Steady energy foods release energy throughout digestion • Energy from sugars are released fast, starch medium and protein slow • Foods should have sugar, starch, protein and quality fats in them

  31. The Media’s Effect on Body Image • What is the media’s effect on Body Image? • Does the media have an effect on you and your image of yourself?

  32. Organic vs Inorganic Minerals • Organic Minerals were once living or are living • They bring life to & can be utilized by our cells • They have an ionic bond which our body easily breaks down and uses for tissue repair/function • Are made up of a plant or animal and therefore used • Inorganic Minerals never lived • They are elements that can not bring life to our cells • They have a covalent bond which are body cannot break down • Our body treats them more like toxins rather than nutrients

  33. Whole Foods vs Synthetic Foods • Whole foods are all natural • They have lived • They are easily broken down by the body • Nutrients from whole foods are readily absorbed by the body • Synthetic foods are made or altered by man • They have never lived • Are often hard to break down by the body • Nutrients from synthetic foods are recognized as unnatural by the body and thus not absorbed

  34. Reading Nutrition Labels

  35. The Energy Balance Equation CALORIES CONSUMED + ENERGY BURNED = BODY COMPOSITION • > Calories in + < Calories burned = Increased Weight • If we eat more calories than we burn we gain body weight • < Calories in + > Calories burned = Decreased Weight • If we eat less calories than we burn we lose body weight • Calories in = Calories burned = No Weight Gain or Loss • If we eat as many calories as we burn our weight will remain the same