Abduction • Movement of a limb away from the midline or axis of the body
Adduction • Movement of a limb toward the middle of the body
Agonist or Antagonist • Most muscles of the musculoskeletal system work in pairs—called agonists and antagonists. Muscles that commonly work in as agonist-antagonist pairs are listed below.
Agonist • During a movement, the muscle responsible for moving the body part contracts or shortens. Biceps gets shorter
Antagonist • The muscle acts against or in opposition to the agonist muscle, stretching when the agonist contracts. The antagonist muscle is responsible for moving the body part back to its original position Triceps get longer
Atrophy • Withering away-decrease in size People may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle - and, along with it, their strength - as they age. Scientists have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that use muscle power, not just because they grow older.
Barbell (bench bar) • A steel bar five to six feet long with an average weight of 45 lbs
Cheating • Too much weight used on an exercise therefore relying on surrounding muscle groups for assistance in the movement
Body Composition • The proportions of lean tissue as compared to fat tissue in the body
Concentric Contraction • When muscle contracts or shortens Biceps gets shorter
Eccentric Contraction • Muscle lengthens while maintaining tension Triceps get longer
Curl Bar • A steel bar designed with bends for ease with curling exercises, weighs an average of 25 lbs.
Dumbbell • A short barbell 10-12 inches in length
Endurance • Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time
Frequency Number of sessions per week for each muscle group
Hypertrophy • Increase in size of muscle fiber
Isokinetic Exercise * Isotonic exercise in which there is an accommodating resistance. • Nautilus and Cybex are two types of isotonic machines
Isometric Exercise The muscle contracts but does not shorten, giving no movement.
Isotonic exercise Muscular action in which there is a change in length of muscle and weight. The muscle contracts and shortens, giving movement…nearly all the training you do is isotonic.
Muscle balance • Balance the program to include opposing muscle groups
Negative reps • When you slowly lower the weights • This technique focuses on the negative portion of muscle contraction (the eccentric or lowering phase). • Each negative rep should take about six to ten seconds to lower. • Focus on negative work at the beginning of your workout when you are at your strongest.
Progressive overload principle • Duration-the length of time spent exercising • Intensity-the degree of exertion put forth by the body during exercise • Frequency-the number of days per week an individual exercises. (at least 3-4 days is recommended
Range of motion • Movement allowed by the body’s joints and body position in a particular exercise
Repetitions • The specific number of times you repeat weight training exercise
Set A group of repetitions that make up a unit • Example 3 set of 5 reps
Spotter • Person responsible for the safety of the one who is performing the lift.
Maximal strength testing(Max) • Lifting as much weight as possible for one repetition
How many reps? • In the beginning of a program your goal should be 10 reps How much weight should you lift? -Use as much weight as is comfortable for 10 reps -The last rep should be fairly hard to perform
When do you increase weight ? • Once you’re able to do more than 10 reps, increase the weight • It takes approximately 8-12 weeks to achieve gains in strength
Two types of lifting • STRENGTH = Low reps/high weight • ENDURANCE = High reps/low weights
Order of exercise • Start with large or multiple muscle groups(chest) followed by small muscle groups (triceps)
An Ideal exercise program • Incorporate aerobic activity • Resistance training • Flexibility exercises
When you are physically fit you: • Are more likely to be at your ideal weight • Are more energy • Can cope with stress better • Are less likely to be depressed • Have stronger bones • Can relax and sleep better
Train all muscle groups and train them in the right order! • As a rule, it is best to work the larger muscles first and work in descending size order. Good starting point: • Hips and legs • Back • Chest • Shoulders • Biceps • Triceps • Abdominals