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# Chapter 4

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1. Chapter 4 4-6 Graphsodtoher trigonometric functions

2. Objectives • •Sketch the graphs of tangent functions. • •Sketch the graphs of cotangent functions. • •Sketch the graphs of secant and cosecant functions. • •Sketch the graphs of damped trigonometric functions.

3. Graph Of the Tangent Function • Recall odd and even functions • Odd • F(-x)=-f(x) • Even • F(-x)=f(x) • Tangent functions are odd. That is, Tan(-x)=-tan(x) • Consequently, the graph of y=tan x is symmetric with respect to the origin .

4. Graph of the tangent function • tan x = sin x / cosx • tangent is undefined for values at which cos x = 0. Two such values are x = ±/ 2  ±1.5708. • When graphing the tangent, a dashed line is used to show where the value of the tangent is undefined. These lines are called asymptotes. The values of the tangent for various angle sizes are shown in Table 1 .

5. Table #1

6. Tangent Graph • The graph of y = tan x has vertical asymptotes at x = / 2 and x = –/ 2 .

7. Tangent graph • The period of the tangent function is pi, vertical asymptotes also occur when x =  Pi/2 + n, where n is an integer. • The domain of the tangent function is the set of all real numbers other than x = pi /2 + n, and the range is the set of all real numbers. • Sketching the graph of y = a tan(bx– c) is similar to sketching the graph of y = a sin(bx– c) in that you locate key points that identify the intercepts and asymptotes.

8. Two consecutive vertical asymptotes can be found by solving the equations • bx– c = pi and bx– c = • The midpoint between two consecutive vertical asymptotes is an x-intercept of the graph. • The period of the function y = a tan(bx– c) is the distance between two consecutive vertical asymptotes.

9. Example • Sketch the graph of y = tan(x / 2). • Solution: • By solving the equations x = – x =  you can see that two consecutive vertical asymptotes occur at x = – and x = .

10. Between these two asymptotes, plot a few points, including the x-intercept, as shown in the table.

11. Cotangent graphs • The cotangent is the reciprocal of the tangent, and its graph is shown in Figure  3. Note the difference between the graph of the tangent and the cotangent in the interval from 0 to π/2.

12. Cotangent graphs • The graph of the cotangent function is similar to the graph of the tangent function. It also has a period of pi. However, from the identity • Y=cos x/sin x • you can see that the cotangent function has vertical asymptotes when sin x is zero, which occurs at x = npi, where n is an integer.

13. Cotangent graphs Because the graphs of both the tangent and cotangent extend without bound both above and below the x‐axis, the amplitude for the tangent and cotangent is not defined.

14. Example • Sketch the graph of y=2cot(x/3) • Solution: • By solving the equations • x/3= 0 x/3= • x = 0 x = 3

15. Reciprocal functions • The graphs of the two remaining trigonometric functions can be obtained from the graphs of the sine and cosine functions using the reciprocal identities • cscx = 1/sinxand sec x = 1/cosx • For instance, at a given value of x, the y-coordinate of sec x is the reciprocal of the y-coordinate of cos x. • Of course, when cos x = 0, the reciprocal does not exist. Near such values of x, the behavior of the secant function is similar to that of the tangent function.

16. Student guided practice • Do odd problems 9-16 in your book page 311

17. Damped trigonometric Graphs • A product of two functions can be graphed using properties of the individual functions. For instance, consider the function f (x) = x sin x as the product of the functions y = x and y = sin x. Using properties of absolute value and the fact that | sin x |  1, you have 0  | x | | sin x |  | x |.

18. Consequently, • –| x |  x sin x  | x | • which means that the graph of f (x) = x sin x lies between the lines y = –x and y = x. • Furthermore, because • f (x) = x sin x = ± x at x = + n • and • f (x) = x sin x = 0 at x = n • the graph of f touches the line y = –x or the line y = x at x =  / 2 + n and has x-intercepts at x = n.

19. Homework • Do even problems from 9-16 in your book page 311