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Design And Implementation Of Frequency Synthesizer And Interrogating Phase Noise In It's Parts PowerPoint Presentation
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Design And Implementation Of Frequency Synthesizer And Interrogating Phase Noise In It's Parts

Design And Implementation Of Frequency Synthesizer And Interrogating Phase Noise In It's Parts

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Design And Implementation Of Frequency Synthesizer And Interrogating Phase Noise In It's Parts

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  1. In The Name Of God Design And Implementation Of Frequency Synthesizer And Interrogating Phase NoiseIn It's Parts Advisor Professor : Dr.Sadr & Dr.Tayarani Students: Majid Sodagar Mehran Mohammadi Izad

  2. Brief Review • Introduction • Block Diagrams • Models • Oscillator • Divider • Charge Pump • Design And Measurements • Conclusions

  3. Signals Suffer From Noise !

  4. Introduction & Motivation • The GSM system needs very narrow channel spacing • Thus low phase noise levels are required. • e.g. , At 1 kHz from the carrier, a single sided spectral noise density of -80 dBc/Hz

  5. Conventional Synthesizer Block Diagram

  6. PLL Block Diagram And Noise Sources

  7. Transfer Functions

  8. Typical Superposition Of All Sources

  9. Oscillator Noise Modeling • LTI Model (Leeson-Cutler) - Ignoring Time Variance Nature of Oscillator • LTV Model (Hajimiri-Lee) - Take the Time Variance Nature of Oscillator into account.

  10. Typical LC Oscillator A = Excess noise FactorN = For Active Inductor

  11. LTI Model Using Only Z(s) of tank circuit

  12. Typical Phase Noise Slopes Close to Career

  13. LTV Model • Every oscillator is a quasi periodic system • the noise analysis should take this into account • Model Benefits: • Design Aspects • Cyclostationary noise

  14. Impulse Response The constant qmax = CVpeak is simply a normalization constant, the peak charge in the oscillator.

  15. Graphical Interpretation

  16. Divider Block Model

  17. Divider Noise Model

  18. Filter Noise • Ignoring Thermal noise of Passive elements And Current Noise

  19. Typical OpAmp Input Voltage Noise • Our OpAmp Performance (OP27):

  20. Charge Pump PFD Structure • Lead And Lag Detection • Increasing Lock Range • Reduction of cycle slipping

  21. Effects Of CP PFD On Phase Noise • Effect of Leakage On reference Spurs • Charge pump is off majority of the Time • Leakage causes VCO tuning voltage to change • Effect of Mismatch On reference Spurs • The width of correction pulses is related to the mismatch • causes the AC voltages • undesirable AC voltages Causes FM modulation

  22. Experimental Results for FM modulation (Spurs) Reference Spur example

  23. CP Phase noise model • Where • Fc = Flicker Corner Frequency • Fm = Offset From Carrier • I0 = current noise Floor

  24. The charge pump nature is discrete so it is prone to instability The following condition should be satisfied to use continuous time analysis !! Stability problem In CP PLL

  25. Our Design

  26. Design Specification • Design for GSM requirements • Fref = 10MHz • Fcomp = 200KHz • LoopBandWidth = 15KHz • RFOut = 800 – 1100 MHz • PhaseMargin = 45 deg

  27. Schematic

  28. Active Filter

  29. Simulated Open Loop Response

  30. Passive Phase Noise Result @1KHz Phase noise = -53.7-10log(200) = -76.7 dBc/Hz

  31. Passive Phase Noise Result @10KHz Phase noise = -51.9-10log(200) = -74.9 dBc/Hz

  32. Passive Phase Noise Result @100KHz Phase noise = -70.2-10log(500) = -92.9 dBc/Hz

  33. Step Response And Lock Time • Settling time = 150msec

  34. Active Phase Noise Result @1KHz Phase noise =-55.1-10log(200)= -78.1 dBc/Hz

  35. Active Phase Noise Result @10KHz Phase noise =-49.7-10log(200)=-72.7 dBc/Hz

  36. Inappropriate Opamp Bias !!! Causing excess noise near the career

  37. 1Hz Normalize Phase Noise • Good way for characterize the phase noise of PLL • Assumes charge pump phase noise is dominant • PN=PN1Hz+20logN+10log(Fcomp)

  38. Experimental Result: • For our design: • PN1Hz = -205 dBc/Hz • N = 4500 • Fcomp = 200KHz • PN =-205+20log(4500) +10log(200KHz) = -78.9 dBc/Hz

  39. Conclusions • By using better synthesizer, its possible to achieve lower Phase noise • If the CP noise Dominates in the circuit, then we can not detect the effect of Active filter noise

  40. Any Question?

  41. Thanks