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Good Morning/Afternoon

Good Morning/Afternoon. 6-5-08 Warm-up. What does it take for a society to get to this point? How do you create change in this type of society?. Civil Rights in the 1950’s. Great Migration - Blacks are moving out of the south into cities in the west and north (LA, NYC, Chicago, Detroit)

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Good Morning/Afternoon

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  1. Good Morning/Afternoon • 6-5-08 • Warm-up

  2. What does it take for a society to get to this point? How do you create change in this type of society?

  3. Civil Rights in the 1950’s • Great Migration- Blacks are moving out of the south into cities in the west and north (LA, NYC, Chicago, Detroit) • *Importance- creates “voting blocs” that elected black politicians that forced the nation to focus on and change segregation in the South • Jim Crow Laws- (segregation) laws that separated blacks and whites in public places (school, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, etc.)

  4. NAACP- uses courts to overturn segregation in the 1950’s • Thurgood Marshall- NAACP leading attorney, traveled south in the 1930’s and 40’s defending black rights in court • *later became first African-American Supreme Court Justice • Brown vs. Board of Education- 1954(Topeka) court case that overturns segregation in schools

  5. Plessy vs. Ferguson- (1896) court case that allowed segregation as long as facilities were “separate but equal” *Separate was enforced but not the equal part

  6. Martin Luther King Jr. & the Bus Boycott New Civil Rights Strategy- Brown vs. Board of Education did not end segregation Montgomery Bus Boycott- blacks forced to sit in the back of the bus but make up a majority of riders Civil Rights in the 1950’s II

  7. Rosa Parks- 43 yr, old CIVIL RIGHTS ADVOCATE *Refused to move from her seat in front of bus, jailed, fined $14 (starts the boycott)

  8. Boycott- blacks stop riding the bus, carpool to get around (MLK is the central organizer of the boycott) • *Importance- blacks organize to create change

  9. White resistance- tried to stop the boycott • Car insurance cancelled for carpoolers • MLK’s house bombed • Black leaders arrested for organizing an illegal boycott • Nov. 1956 Supreme Court ruled bus segregation is illegal (boycott lasted 1 year)

  10. Martin Luther King Jr.- Montgomery bus boycott brought him international fame • 1. “I have a Dream”-that all people are equal (wanted an end to segregation without punishment, forgive segregationists) • *Importance- MLK was not a threat to white northerners and they supported him

  11. 2. Non-violence: said that history will remember those who stood up for what was right using peace and love • *Importance- gave Civil Rights protesters (Af/Am) a motivation to put themselves in harms way • **These two ideas rewrote American Race relations

  12. Good Morning/Afternoon • 5-27-08 • Warm-up • How might this be a powerful way to resist segregation? Explain.

  13. Little Rock, Arkansas- (1957) after Brown vs. Board of Education, schools in the south were integrating as slow as possible Little Rock 9- nine black students were to enroll at Central High School Civil Rights- part III

  14. Governor Faubus- called in the National Guard to keep students OUT • First day of school- 1,000 angry whites jeered the students • TV captured the scene and made the nation sensitive to Civil Rights

  15. US Army- TV forced President Eisenhower to react, sent in the troops to protect the students for 1 year • Greensboro, North Carolina (1960)- lunch counters and restaurants were segregated

  16. Sit-in- 4 college students sat down at a lunch counter and asked for service • *TV captures whites beating, insulting, and trying to provoke the protesters who refused to strike back • *inspired others (by the end of 1960, 50,000 people had demonstrated in sit-ins, 3,000 went to jail

  17. Good Morning/Afternoon • 6-3-08 • Warm-up • In your opinion, who’s strategy was more effective in the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King, or Malcolm X? Explain.

  18. Freedom Riders- (1961) black and white civil rights advocates who rode around the South in buses focusing attention on segregated facilities (especially bus stops) • *met by mobs (one bus was burned, police refused to protect protesters in many Southern cities)~

  19. JFK- assassinated November 22, 1963 • Malcolm X • Killed by the Nation of Islam in February 21, 1965 • FBI and CIA were tracking his every move

  20. Urban Violence- countless riots lead to discontented civil rights advocates and activists • Ex. Watts Riots-(1965)- white policemen arrest a young African American for drunk driving, cop would not allow brother to drive car home • -6 day riot, 34 dead, 3,500 arrests, 900 injured, $30 million destroyed • Outcome- even more race riots in 100+ cities, and new leaders emerge

  21. Stokely Carmichael- leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • Ideas: coined the phrase Black Power after being arrested during the March Against Fear- 220 mile solitary march led by J. Meredith, shot by a white man 1st day but lived

  22. Good Morning/Afternoon • 6-8-09 • Warm-up • Turn in textbooks this week for EXTRA CREDIT!!!! Friday is the last day for points

  23. Carmichael, MLK, and McKiss finished march with different tactics (confrontational vs. nonviolent) • Outcome- Carmichael arrested and beaten but becomes a grassroots hero~

  24. Black Panther Party BPP- started in 1965 in Oakland, Ca Leaders-Huey P Newton & Bobby Seale Ideas- fight police brutality + take control of the community, also preached armed revolt

  25. -made money by selling writings of Mao Zedong (leader of communist China) • Examples: breakfast programs, day care, and other services

  26. Style- black Berets, leather jackets, sunglasses • Outcome- FBI investigations to break up the party and shootouts w/ police end the party

  27. Legacy of Civil Rights MovementEnds only one form of segregation • MLK Jr. assassinated- April 3, 1968, by James Earl Ray • Reaction- worst riots in US history, 125 cities

  28. Civil Rights Achievements • Ends de jure segregation (by law), but not… • De Facto segregation (by custom) • Legislation • 1. Civil Rights Act of 1964, 1968- banned discrimination in public places and housing • 2. Voting Rights Act of 1965- guaranteed African-Americans the right to vote (% of Afr/Am voters triple in the South)

  29. Unfinished Work • 1970’s- changing issues like housing, jobs, poverty, education, and racism means changes attitudes= much harder • Ex. Affirmative Action- help minorities get fair opportunities through hiring and enrollments • Outcome-to be determined (illegal in CA now) • -Some call it reverse-discrimination • Bakke vs. UC Regents

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