social control n.
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Social Control

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Social Control

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  1. Social Control The enforcing of norms through either internal or external means.

  2. Two Basic Ways of Social Control • Internalization- the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality; thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations. • Sanction- rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms of society.

  3. Types of Sanctions • Positive Sanctions • Negative Sanctions • Formal Sanctions • Informal Sanctions

  4. Positive Sanctions • An action that rewards a particular kind of behavior. • Introduced to this concept early in life through family. • Ex: Positive reinforcement; compliments; pay raises; trophies; ribbons etc

  5. Negative Sanctions • A punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity. • Ex: Car towed; traffic tickets; fines; ridicule; imprisonment; probation; death

  6. Formal Sanctions • A reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency such as a school, business, or government. • Ex: low grades; suspensions; pay raises; fired; fines; promotions; scholarships; imprisonment

  7. Informal Sanctions • Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group. • Ex: standing ovations; compliments; smiles; pats on the back; gifts; frowns; gossip; insults; ostracism (exclusion from group) • These sanctions are particularly effective among teenagers.