1911 RevolutionQuestion 1 • What is so significant about the 1911 Revolution? • Marks a break from dynastic system once for all; • A turning Point in Chinese History
Three People’s Principles(East Asia 450-452)Three policies • Nationalism • Democracy • People’s livelihood • ally with Russia, • ally with the CCP, assist workers and peasants—proletariat
Jiang Jieshi and Sun Zhongshan • Chiang Kai-shek was appointed by Sun Yat-sen as Commandant of the Whampoa Military Academy. • Difference between Sun and Chiang • Sun’s three policies • East Asia 507
Two Models: Jiang vs. MaoQuestion 5 • Strategy of bowling (target at some key pin/player—from most difficult to the easiest) This is similar to a combination shot in playing table pool or a bank shot in playing basketball. It is a geometrical move in nature in which a player targets at some key pin and use it as a leverage to hit other pins indirectly. • Expansive Mode (Mao’s model: laying a siege/circling/surrounding key cities with the countryside-- from easiest to the most difficult). It is comparable to the flanking marketing warfare strategies.
Target at a key pin • You don’t have and you can’t anyway to hit every pin; but by hitting some key pins, those pins will hit other pins for you; • This is similar to a combination shot in playing table pool.
a combination shot in playing table pool • A combination shot is a shot where an object ball is hit into one or more object ball to pocket the intended object ball. The illustration shows you the 5-9 combination shot the cue ball hits the 5-ball then the 5-ball hits the 9-ball and pockets it
Bank Shot in Playing Basketball • Indirect • Geometrical
Question 6: unification of ChinaJiang’s Northern Expedition • The Northern Expedition (Chinese: 北伐; pinyin: běi fá) was a military campaign led by the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1926 to 1928. Its main objective was to unify China under the Kuomintang banner by ending the rule of local warlords. It led to the demise of the Beiyang government and the Chinese reunification of 1928. • East Asia 462-463
National Revolutionary ArmyFlag of the National Revolutionary Army • 国民革命军; pinyin: Guómín Gémìng Jūn; Wade–Giles: Kuo-min Ke-ming Chün), pre-1928 sometimes shortened to 革命軍 or Revolutionary Army and between 1928-1947 as 國軍 or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928.
Zhongshan Warship Incident中山舰事件, Signals the purge • The Zhongshan Warship Incidentor March 20th Incident, on March 20, 1926, involved a suspected plot by Captain Li Zhilong 李之龙 of the warship Zhongshan to kidnap Chiang Kai-shek.
4∙12 massacre of 1927 in Shanghai • The Shanghai massacre of 1927, also known as the April 12 Incident, was a large-scale purge of Communists from the Kuomintang (KMT) in Shanghai, ordered by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek on 12 April 1927. • 300–400 killed or executed, 5,000 missing
Tensions between the Comintern, the KMT, and the CPC presented opportunities for political intrigue and opportunism. With the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War, Li was captured during a raid on the Soviet embassy in Peking (Beijing) and, with nineteen others, he was executed on the orders of the warlord Zhang Zuolin 張作霖 on April 28, 1927. Beiyang Government Death of Li Dazhao 李大钊Co-Founder of CCP
September 9, 1927The Autumn Harvest Uprising (Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces)The First Workers/Peasants Revolutionary Army
Three Uprisings • 1895: Guangzhou uprising led by Sun Yat-sen; • August 1st, 1927: Nanchang uprising (Jiangxi Province); later adopted as the birthday of the PLA; • 1027: Autumn Harvest Uprising led by Mao Zedong;
Question 7Xi’an Incident 1936 • Inflexibility is consequential • It works the same way as Freud’s “superego” • Super-Ego: Freudian concept • Moral police • In stiff/dogmatic practice, super-ego could be suppressive since it won’t take into account the conext; • Make a list of such practice in history
Let’s Fight JapaneseInstead of Fighting Each Other • When, on Dec. 12, 1936, Chiang visited the headquarters of Zhang and Yang at Xi’an to promote a new anticommunist campaign, he was arrested by Zhang’s troops; the high officials accompanying Chiang were arrested by Yang’s troops. Motivated by their concern for their homelands, then occupied or threatened by the Japanese, they demanded the cessation of the civil war between Nationalists and communists, the establishment of a national united front to oppose the Japanese, and the reorganization of the Nationalist government. In full agreement with the rebels’ requests, the Chinese communists, represented by Zhou Enlai, joined the negotiations.
Chiang’s wife Soong May-ling was so worried that Chiang be killed and urged peace negotiations. He Yingqin was voted as acting commander to lead the KMT armies to the rescue of Chiang. Historians used to say that He strongly supported the need to solve this incident by military actions, Let’s bomb Xi’an to “protect” Jiang… Nanjing’s Response
Song Meiling Merged as a Key Player • Madam Jiang flew to Xi’an with her elder brother Song Ziwen. • Soong May-ling (宋美齡, 1897–2003) Moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death. Arguably his most famous wife. She bore him no children.
a prominent businessman and politician in the early 20th century Republic of China. His father was Charlie Soong and his siblings were the Soong sisters. His Christian name was Paul, but he is generally known in English as T. V. Soong. As brother to the three Soong sisters, Soong's brothers-in-law were Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and financier H. H. Kung. Song ZiwenT. V. Soong (1894–1971)
The young marshal fell in love with Song Meiling in 1925 in Shanghai at a cocktail party Delicate TriangleSworn Brothers
On December 17, Stalin instructed that Jiang be released; Communist International The Communist International (shortened Comintern, also known as the Third International) was an international communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. Response from Russia
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Pre’mier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976. Zhou was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and subsequently in the development of the Chinese economy and restructuring of Chinese society. Zhou Enlai
Zhang Xueliang and Zhou Enlai • In March 1936, Zhang visited Zhou in Yan’an, the revolutionary base in Shaanxi Province; • Zhang donated 20,000 silver dollars to support the Red Army for its fighting Japanese—Zhang’s father was killed by Japanese and he lost his hometown as young marshal. • Later Zhang donated 200,000 francs
Jiang promised, “As long as I live, China will not have another civil war to fight the Communist Party.” The Second United Front1937-1945
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and senior members of the KMT after their arrest.
Arise! All who refuse to be slaves!Let our flesh and blood become our new Great Wall!As the Chinese nation faces its greatest peril,All forcefully expend their last cries.Arise! Arise! Arise!Our million hearts beat as one,Brave the enemy's fire, March on!Brave the enemy's fire, March on!March on! March on! On! 起来！ 不愿做奴隶的人们！把我们的血肉， 筑成我们新的长城！中华民族到了 最危险的时候，每个人被迫着 发出最后的吼声。起来！起来！起来！我们万众一心，冒着敌人的炮火，前进冒着敌人的炮火，前进前进！前进！进！ National Anthem of PRCLyrics: Tian Han 1934; Music: Nie Er (1935)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7wvyITD2stg
Question 8 • 1937-1945—the Anti-Japanese War or the Second Sino-Japanese War (East Asia 514-517) • 1945-1949—the Civil War (East Asia 517-518)
5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army) • The IJA 5th Division was dispatched to protect Japanese nationals and property in Tianjin China in June 1900 after the start of the Boxer Rebellion. • Under the terms of the Boxer Protocol, Japan was allowed to maintain a military garrison to guard its embassy, concessions in China, as well as certain strategic fortifications and ports.
Lugou Bridge, double 7th Incident Marco Polo Bridge, BeijingBeginning of a full-scale invasion of China
night military drills • However, on the night of July 7, 1937, night military drills were carried out without prior notice, greatly alarming the local Chinese forces. Chinese troops, thinking an attack was underway, fired a few ineffectual rifle shots, leading to a brief exchange of fire at approximately 23:00. • When a Japanese soldier failed to return to his post, his company commander, Major Kiyonao Ichiki, thought that the Chinese had captured him, and reported the incident to his regimental commander, Colonel Renya Mutaguchi. Chinese regimental commander Ji Xingwen (219th Regiment, 37th Division, 29th Route Army) received a telephone message from the Japanese demanding permission to enter Wanping to search for the missing soldier.
Nanking Massacre • The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a six-week period following the Japanese sack of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.
Song Meiling Visited US • Soong May-ling (right) with Eleanor Roosevelt during a 1943 visit
The First Lady’s Improvised Speeches • http://www.youtube.com/v/TRF2WTNwo0M&hl=zh_TW&fs=1 1937 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61bV9-zeCrA&feature=related 1943
The First Lady Charmed America • On February 18, 1943, she addressed both houses of the U.S. Congress.
the Double Tenth Agreement 雙十協定, 1945 • In 1945 after the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Mao Zedong and members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) traveled to Chongqing for a meeting with Chiang Kai-Shek and the Kuomintang (KMT). With help from the China Democratic League 中國民主同盟 , the Double Tenth Agreement 雙十協定 was signed between the KMT and CCP, with both sides agreeing to stop the civil war and to establish a multi-party government in China.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-oFOALoeY0 解放战争 【jiěfàngzhànzhēng】 liberation war. Harvesting Peaches
Site of the Eighth Route Army’s Office in Chongqing (City) 1945 • The Site of the Eighth Route Army's Office in Chongqing City consists of three parts, namely No.13 of Hongyan Village, No.50 of Zengjiayan, and Guiyuan Site. In 1958, the Hongyan Revolution Memorial was built in Hongyan Village.