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Functional Behavior Assessment

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  1. Functional Behavior Assessment Supplement (Fall 2008)

  2. IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Chapter 14 New Requirement High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt

  3. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) FBA is a process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) of behavior in order to write an effective positive behavior support plan.

  4. Assumptions Underlying FBA • Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose. • To get • To avoid • Behavior is related to the context within which it occurs

  5. Questions to Address • How often does the target behavior occur & how long does it last? • Where does the behavior typically occur/never occur? • Who is present for the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior? • What is going on during the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior? • When is the behavior most likely/least likely to occur? • How does the student react to the usual consequences that follow the behavior?

  6. Analyzing Patterns Under what circumstances or antecedent events is the target behavior most/least likely? WHEN? WHERE? WHAT? WHO? WHY? What consequences or results predictably follow the target behavior? WHAT DO THEY GET? WHAT DO THEY AVOID? What broader issues are important influences on behavior?

  7. Summary Statement 1. When this occurs…(describe circumstances/antecedents) 2. the child does…(describe target behavior) 3. to get/to avoid…(describe consequences)

  8. STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

  9. IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Chapter 14 New Requirement High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt

  10. FBA LEVELS Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt

  11. Informal • Archival Review • Office Discipline Referrals • Problem Solving Meeting

  12. Mark Banks WWW.swis.org

  13. WWW.swis.org

  14. Math Class WWW.swis.org

  15. WWW.swis.org

  16. WWW.swis.org

  17. WWW.swis.org

  18. Mark As a result of a brief problem solving meeting based on office discipline referrals Function(Reinforcer) Detention with same group of boys To gain peer attention Target Behavior Inappropriate Language Setting Events/Antecedent Math Class Certain group of boys

  19. STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

  20. IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt

  21. FBA LEVELS 30% Reliability in identifying function 60-80% reliable Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt; http://www.behaviordoctor.org/

  22. Indirect • Checklists • Functional Assessment Team Forms • Initial Line of Inquiry • Behavioral Pathways • Functional Assessment Interview Forms

  23. Competing Behaviors Pathways Maintaining Consequence (s) (match function) Desired Alternative Setting Event Accommodations Triggering Antecedent Accommodations Problem Behavior Problem behavior pathway Maintaining Consequence(s) (match function) Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Replacement Behavior Use to plan strategies for supporting alternative, desired behaviors

  24. Initial Line of Inquiry Name:______________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Llewellyn, G., & Knoster, T. (1997). Screening for understanding of student problem behavior: An initial line of inquiry. Pennsylvania Department of Education.

  25. Student-Assisted Functional Assessment Interview Student______________________________ Date_____________________________________ School ______________________________ Interviewer________________________________ SECTION I

  26. SECTION II When do you think you have the fewest problems with _________________in school? (Target Behavior) Why do you not have problems during this/these times(s)? When do you think you have the most problems with __________________in school? (Target Behavior) Why do you have problems during this/these times(s)? What changes could be made so you would have fewer problems with ___________________? (Target Behavior) What kind of rewards would you like to earn for good behavior or good school work? What are your favorite activities at school? What are your hobbies or interests? If you had the chance, what activities would you like to do that you don’t have the opportunity to do now?

  27. SECTION III Rate how much you like the following subjects:

  28. SECTION IV What do you like about Reading? What don’t you like about Reading? What do you like about Math? What don’t you like about Math? What do you like about Spelling? What don’t you like about Spelling? What do you like about Handwriting? What don’t you like about Handwriting? What do you like about Science? What don’t you like about Science? What do you like about Social Studies? What don’t you like about Social Studies? What do you like about English? What don’t you like about English? What do you like about Music? What don’t you like about Music? What do you like about Physical Education? What don’t you like about Physical Education? What do you like about Computers? What don’t you like about Computers? What do you like about Art? What don’t you like about Art? Kern, Dunlap, Clarke, & Childs (1994)

  29. STEP 1: FBA INTERVIEW Student Name:Date: School:Grade:DOB: Educational Program Description: I. Description of the Behavior of concern (specifically describe what the behavior looks and sounds like): • Instructions: When the answer is YES, add details on the lines provided. • II. Physiological and Medical Factors: • 1. Could the behavior be the result of a medical condition or any form of physical discomfort? • NO • YES______________________________________________________________ • 2. Could the behavior be related to a side effect of medication? • NO • YES • 3. Could the behavior be the result of a deprivation condition (thirst, hunger, fatigue, etc.)? • NO • YES______________________________________________________________ • III. Setting Events and Antecedents: • 1. Are there circumstances in which the behavior ALWAYS occurs? • NO • YES __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Are there circumstances in which the behavior NEVER occurs? • NO • YES_______________________________________________________________ 3. Does the behavior occur only (or more often) during particular activities or times? • NO • YES_______________________________________________________________

  30. *If checked, please refer for further assessment (i.e. Speech & Language evaluation, Occupational Therapy evaluation, curriculum-based assessments, Specific Skills Assessments)

  31. IV. Consequence Factors: • 1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain something? • A. Preferred activities or items? • Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always regains an item or activity that has been taken away or terminated. The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always gains access to an activity or item that he was told he couldn’t have. The behavior rarely occurs when the student is given free access to his or her favorite items or activities. • NO • YES • B. Peer or adult attention? • Indicators: The student frequently approaches others. The student frequently initiates social interaction. When the behavior occurs, someone usually responds by interacting with the student in some way (i.e. verbal reprimand, redirection, comforting statements). The behavior rarely occurs when the student is receiving attention. • NO • YES • 2. Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape something such as task demands, social interaction, etc.? • Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the task demands placed upon him. The behavior rarely occurs when few demands are placed on the student or when the student is left alone. The student is often noncompliant when asked to complete tasks and the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the tasks. The behavior often occurs prior to predictable demands and the student sometimes or always avoids or postpones the tasks. • NO • YES • 3. Does the behavior provide stimulation as an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities? • Indicators: The behavior occurs frequently when the student is alone or unoccupied. The student seems to have few known reinforcers or rarely engages in social interaction activities. When the student engages in the behavior, others usually respond by not attending to the behavior. • NO • YES

  32. STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

  33. IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt

  34. FBA LEVELS 30% Reliability in identifying function 60-80% reliable Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt; http://www.behaviordoctor.org/

  35. Direct Observation • A-B-C data • Structured, Planned Observation

  36. Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence Chart Student: Date:

  37. Frequency - Event Recording Data Sheet Frequency: The number of occurrences of a behavior Student _ Observer _ Target Behavior: _

  38. Duration - Recording Data Sheet Duration: The length of time a student engages in a particular behavior Student Observer Target Behavior:

  39. Latency Recording Data Sheet Latency: Measures how long it takes for behavior to begin Student Observer Target Behavior:

  40. Modified Scatter Plot Frequency of Multiple Behaviors Student: Grade: Date: Observer: Teacher: ANECDOTAL NOTES

  41. FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT (FBA) • STEP 1: INTERVIEW • The IEP team, including persons who have observed the behavior of the student in a variety of settings and conditions, completes the interview questions focusing on antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. • STEP 2: DIRECT OBSERVATION • Data collection is accomplished through direct observation in the student’s natural environment. Direct observation provides objective data to support or refute the interview information; thus leading to more accurate hypothesis formation. The observation and the data collection methods are determined by information gathered during the interview phase (STEP 1). • STEP 3: SUMMARY • The IEP team summarizes the interview information and the data collected during direct observation to form one or more hypotheses identifying the function(s) the behavior is serving for the student. The IEP team uses this information to build the Behavioral Intervention Plan. Ongoing analyses of data collected during the intervention phase of the BIP guide the team in measuring

  42. STEP 1: FBA INTERVIEW Student Name:Date: School:Grade:DOB: Educational Program Description: I. Description of the Behavior of concern (specifically describe what the behavior looks and sounds like): • Instructions: When the answer is YES, add details on the lines provided. • II. Physiological and Medical Factors: • 1. Could the behavior be the result of a medical condition or any form of physical discomfort? • NO • YES______________________________________________________________ • 2. Could the behavior be related to a side effect of medication? • NO • YES • 3. Could the behavior be the result of a deprivation condition (thirst, hunger, fatigue, etc.)? • NO • YES______________________________________________________________ • III. Setting Events and Antecedents: • 1. Are there circumstances in which the behavior ALWAYS occurs? • NO • YES __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Are there circumstances in which the behavior NEVER occurs? • NO • YES_______________________________________________________________ 3. Does the behavior occur only (or more often) during particular activities or times? • NO • YES_______________________________________________________________

  43. *If checked, please refer for further assessment (i.e. Speech & Language evaluation, Occupational Therapy evaluation, curriculum-based assessments, Specific Skills Assessments)

  44. IV. Consequence Factors: • 1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain something? • A. Preferred activities or items? • Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always regains an item or activity that has been taken away or terminated. The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always gains access to an activity or item that he was told he couldn’t have. The behavior rarely occurs when the student is given free access to his or her favorite items or activities. • NO • YES • B. Peer or adult attention? • Indicators: The student frequently approaches others. The student frequently initiates social interaction. When the behavior occurs, someone usually responds by interacting with the student in some way (i.e. verbal reprimand, redirection, comforting statements). The behavior rarely occurs when the student is receiving attention. • NO • YES • 2. Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape something such as task demands, social interaction, etc.? • Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the task demands placed upon him. The behavior rarely occurs when few demands are placed on the student or when the student is left alone. The student is often noncompliant when asked to complete tasks and the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the tasks. The behavior often occurs prior to predictable demands and the student sometimes or always avoids or postpones the tasks. • NO • YES • 3. Does the behavior provide stimulation as an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities? • Indicators: The behavior occurs frequently when the student is alone or unoccupied. The student seems to have few known reinforcers or rarely engages in social interaction activities. When the student engages in the behavior, others usually respond by not attending to the behavior. • NO • YES

  45. STEP 2: DIRECT OBSERVATION The FBA interview results in a measurable description of the behavior of concern and information that leads to direct observation with data collection and analysis. Direct observation Serves to more clearly define the behavior Supports or refutes interview information Allows for assessment of behavioral events in the student’s natural environment Leads to a more accurate hypothesis regarding the function(s) of the student’s behavior of concern Serves as a baseline to measure the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the behavior prior to intervention Provides information that is necessary to build a Behavioral Intervention Plan Supplies the team with progress monitoring data to evaluate the implemented interventions and guide adjustments to the plan Data collection Define the behavior of concern in observable and measurable terms. Determine the purpose for data collection—the type of information needed from each data collection session (i.e. frequency counts, identifying antecedents and/or consequences). Outline the schedule including where, when, how often, and who will collect data. Design tools that will result in the collection of the type of data needed and that are functional with clear coding systems. Transfer the data to a visual representation (graph) and analyze it for trend, level and variability. Data collection methods Record frequency and/or duration indicating time of day, location, activities occurring, and people present. Write a description of the student’s behavior as well as the antecedents and consequences using an A-B-C format. This type of data must be collected multiple times across settings when the behavior of concern occurs as well as when the behavior of concern does not occur.

  46. STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

  47. IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt

  48. Permission to Evaluate? FBA LEVELS Permission to Evaluate? Permission to Evaluate? Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt; http://www.behaviordoctor.org/

  49. Positive Behavior Support Plan Proactive Adjusting the environment that reduce the likelihood of problem behavior occurring Allowing the student to be independent and successful Examples: modifying the curriculum, reorganizing the physical setting, clarifying routines and expectations http://www.behaviordoctor.org/