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Functional Behavior Assessment & Preference Assessment PowerPoint Presentation
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Functional Behavior Assessment & Preference Assessment

Functional Behavior Assessment & Preference Assessment

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Functional Behavior Assessment & Preference Assessment

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  1. Functional Behavior Assessment &Preference Assessment Presented by Michelle Antle, Simpson Co.; Marty Boman, WKU Paula Borland, CESC; Connie Miller, Warren Co.; Debra Myers, CESC; & Amanda Reagan, Allen Co. Prepared by KATC January 2010 & KY Coop Network February 2010

  2. Assessment of Reinforcers The purpose of this presentation is to provide professionals with the tools to assess reinforcers that: Maintain problem behavior Can be used during instruction to increase student performance Prepared by KATC January 2010

  3. Applied Behavior Analysis Much what we know about the assessment of reinforcers is derived from the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Applied behavior analysis or ABA is cited frequently in the area of intervention for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Prepared by KATC January 2010

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis Though often cited as a practice, ABA is more accurately described as a science devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) For practitioners, ABA should be viewed as a lens for viewing the educational context and behaviors therein. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  5. History of ABA & Autism Experimental Psychology Watson & Skinner First work with students with autism Bijou, Wolf & Risley Applied Behavior Analysis Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968 Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Lovaas Prepared by KATC January 2010

  6. Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968 (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) Definition of ABA The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  7. Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968 Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis Applied Behavioral Analytic Technological Conceptually Systematic Effective Generality Prepared by KATC January 2010

  8. The Nuts and Bolts “2-Term Contingency” Behavior is controlled by it’s consequences For example: Johnny hits because he gets attention for it, not because he is angry Mary flaps her hands because it feels good, not because she has autism Prepared by KATC January 2010

  9. The Nuts and Bolts Behavior doesn’t happen in a vacuum “ The 3- term contingency” Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Antecedent- Billy falls down Behavior- Billy Cries Consequence- Billy is held by the teacher Prepared by KATC January 2010

  10. Three term contingency Stimulus Response Consequence Or Antecedent Behavior Consequence Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  11. ABA Model of Behavior Behavior is influenced by the environment Antecedents (Events immediately before) Consequences (Events immediately after) Reinforcement (Increases/maintains behavior over time) Punishment (decreases behaviors over time Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  12. Doorbell rings Walk to the door See your neighbor Light turns green Step on the gas Car moves forward You see a coke machine Put money in Get a coke Examples of three-term contingency in life Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  13. Parent is holding a cookie within view of the child. Child asks parent, “ Cookie, please?” Parent gives child a cookie and says, “Good asking!” Parent is holding a cookie within view of the child. Child throws a tantrum and tries to take cookie from parent. Parent gives child a cookie. Examples of three-term contingency in life Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  14. The Nuts and Bolts Prepared by KATC January 2010

  15. A Closer Look How do consequences effect problem behavior? Reinforcement & Punishment Prepared by KATC January 2010

  16. Reinforcement (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) What is Positive Reinforcement? When a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions Prepared by KATC January 2010

  17. Positive Reinforcement Student interrupts frequently because each time the teacher gives him a lecture. Students melts down when asked to leave the computer because the teacher has historically given him 5 more minutes. Student flaps his hands because in the past it has resulted in a preferred sensory experience. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  18. Positive Reinforcement Prepared by KATC January 2010

  19. Reinforcement (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) What is Negative Reinforcement? Something removed immediately following a behavior that increases the future frequency of the behavior. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  20. Negative Reinforcement? Student melts down in the gym because in the past it has resulted in removal from the gym. Adult puts on his seatbelt because in the past it has resulted in the removal of the obnoxious beeping noise. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  21. Negative Reinforcement Prepared by KATC January 2010

  22. Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  23. ABA Principle-Reinforcement Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010 Positive Reinforcement: a “gain” function(social attention, preferred activities, tangible items, and/or sensory stimuli) Negative Reinforcement: an “escape” function (undesired activities, requests, social attention, and/or sensory stimuli)

  24. Parent is holding a cookie within view of the child. Child asks parent, “ Cookie, please?” Parent gives child a cookie and says “ Good asking!” Parent is holding a cookie within view of the child. Child throws a tantrum and tries to take cookie from parent. Parent ignores the child, walks away, and hides the cookies. Four outcomes of Reinforcement Parent is holding a cookie within view of the child. Child throws a tantrum and tries to take cookie from parent. Parent gives child a cookie. Parent is holding a cookie within view of the child. Child asks parent, “ Cookie, please?” Parent ignores the child, walks away, and hides the cookies. Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  25. Vignettes CD Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010 • Behavioral Programming for children with Autism. (1999). New York: EdenII Programs. Reinforcement Lessons .

  26. Punishment Positive punishment Something delivered immediately following a behavior that decreases the future frequency of the behavior Prepared by KATC January 2010

  27. Positive Punishment • Johnny speaks out. Teacher says, “Do not interrupt.” Johnny interrupts less frequently in the future. • Mary raises her hand. The teacher excessively praises her for answering (embarrassing her). Mary raises her hand less frequently in the future. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  28. Positive Punishment Prepared by KATC January 2010

  29. Punishment Negative Punishment Something removed immediately following a behavior that decreases the future frequency of the behavior Prepared by KATC January 2010

  30. Negative Punishment • Teacher removes student from reinforcing activity for hitting and hitting occurs less frequently in the future. • Student talks in class. Teacher removes a token from the student’s token board. The talking out decreases. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  31. Negative Punishment Prepared by KATC January 2010

  32. Reinforcement & Punishment Prepared by KY Coop Network February 2010

  33. Activity Watch the following Clips and Discuss Possible Reinforcers. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  34. Activity Antecedent Behavior Consequence In the Future Can you use the following diagram to develop your own examples of Positive & Negative Reinforcement? Positive & Negative Punishment Prepared by KATC January 2010

  35. Antecedents If behavior is primarily maintained by its consequences why do we have to care about what happens before the behavior? Prepared by KATC January 2010

  36. Antecedents Antecedents primarily affect behavior in two ways. • They signal to a student that reinforcement is available for a response. • They increase or decrease the value of a reinforcer. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  37. Signaling reinforcement is available Students may learn that only in the presence of certain stimuli (teachers, activities, materials) is reinforcement for a response is available The technical term for this thing is discriminative stimulus (SD) Prepared by KATC January 2010

  38. Discriminative stimulus This special stimulus becomes a signal through differential reinforcement. That is, a response is reinforced in it’s presence but not in it’s absence. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  39. Discriminative stimulus For example: For weeks, Mrs. Johnson seems to be the only teacher assistant that gives Micky attention for his making a whistling sound. Every time that Mrs. Johnson enters the room, Micky’s whistling increases. We say that the presence of Mrs. Johnson signals that reinforcement is available for whistling. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  40. Discriminative stimulus For example: In the general education class, the teacher allows Mary to take a walk following occurrences of problem behavior. This is not the case in the special education class. The general education classroom becomes a SD for problem behavior. Again, it signals reinforcement is available for problem behavior. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  41. Changing the value of a reinforcer? Sometimes stimuli that happen before a behavior may alter the value of a reinforcer. Thus altering the frequency of behavior previously reinforced by that reinforcer. These are a called Motivating Operations (EOs). (Micheal, 1982) Prepared by KATC January 2010

  42. Motivating Operations Primarily MOs serve two purposes: Satiation & Deprivation Prepared by KATC January 2010

  43. How does info about MO change the picture? In a recent FBA, ABC data collection indicated that every time the teacher called on Johnny, he verbally protests, which was followed by a teacher lecture. Additional data revealed that on days when the teacher infrequently called on Johnny, the problem behavior occurred more frequently. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  44. Oh. Me! Me Me! Jin, Raise your hand and wait quietly No attention for 45 min What’s this? MO SD B C Prepared by KATC January 2010

  45. How might you affect behavior through MOs? Activity Phil, a young man with Asperger syndrome, engages the teacher in verbal dialogue to escape difficult tasks. Allyson, a young woman with autism, engages in screaming to access food reinforcers in the classroom pantry. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  46. Activity Work in small groups to come up with a scenario in which a MO may increase and decrease the value of a reinforcer. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  47. Functional Behavior Assessment Power of FBA for teachers. It addresses contextual variables that affect student’s behavior, variables that a teacher may be able to control. It may result in more powerful intervention. Prepared by KATC January 2010

  48. Power of FBA for teachers It may result in more reinforcement-based interventions. (Cooper Heron & Heward, 2007) It provides active involvement in a process. FBA is much more than a form! Prepared by KATC January 2010

  49. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Outcomes of FBA Description of the problem behavior Identification of the events, times, circumstances that are regularly associated with the occurrence and non occurrence of the problem behavior. (O’Neill et al., 1997) Prepared by KATC January 2010

  50. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Outcomes of FBA Identification of the consequences that maintain the behavior. Development of a summary statement or hypothesis regarding the function or purpose of the behavior. (O’Neill et al., 1997) Prepared by KATC January 2010