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Functional Behavior Assessment Day 1

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  1. Functional Behavior AssessmentDay 1 Intermediate Unit 1 Presenter: Kristen N. Salamone

  2. Session Objectives Participants will: • Identify basic behavior principles • Apply basic behavior principles to a specific child’s or adolescent’s behavior • Understand state and federal laws concerning FBA’s, data collection and behavioral principles • Examine FBA team forms, interview forms and data collection forms • Develop a plan of data collection to utilize throughout the next week

  3. Ground Rules • Talk about behaviors, not judgments • Keep confidential (identifying) information out of discussions • Respect your districts and your colleagues districts • Recognize that working with difficult behavior is hard and it is OK to ask for help • Focus on future successes, not past failures • Understand that behavior change requires systematic instruction and is gradual in improvement

  4. The Public Health Model • Tertiary Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Tertiary Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small Group Interventions • Some Individualizing • Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small Group Interventions • Some Individualizing • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  5. The Foundation • Context Related • Serve a Function • Interventions depend on environment and function • Respect

  6. THE GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOR To Obtain/To Avoid Does the behavior allow the student to gainpeer or adult attention? Does the behavior allow the student to gainpreferred activities or items? Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape anything (demands, social interaction, etc.)? Does the behavior provide stimulation activity (an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities)?

  7. What about Behavior? • Behaviors serve a function • Analysis of the function or purpose of a behavior is the key to intervention • Functional Behavior Assessment includes observation, interview and analysis to disclose information about the reasons behaviors occur

  8. Spot Check 1 The Public Health Model shows? Name 1 Ground Rule What do behaviors serve for the student? What are the 2 goals of misbehavior? 5. What is the key to behavior interventions?

  9. Antecedent A is what occurs before a behavior

  10. CSI Antecedent Pay close attention to: • The activity • The adult(s) • The peer(s) • The location/environment • The demand or request

  11. Environmental Temporal (time) Physical/Medical Task Presentation Instructor Instruction Antecedent Strategies A

  12. Furniture Décor Noise Level Temperature Lighting Environmental Variables

  13. Time of Day Wait Time Start/Stop Time Transition Time Temporal (time) Variables

  14. Hunger Allergies Medications Medical Side Effects Stimulation (clothing) Physical/Medical Variables

  15. Materials Activity Pace Length of Task Activity Partners Activity Complexity Task Variables

  16. Type of Instruction Complexity of Presentation Types of Cues Presentation Variables

  17. Tone of Voice Disposition/ Attitude towards a Student Consistency of Expectation Instructor Variables

  18. Skill Deficits Lack of Prior Knowledge Instruction Variables

  19. Establishing Operations Definition: an event that changes the status of a stimulus as a reinforcer or punisher • Durational Events • Behavioral Histories • Physiologic Conditions

  20. Examining Behavior Triggers Fast Triggers • Immediate Antecedents • Specific Discriminative Stimuli Slow Triggers • Establishing Operations • Setting Events • Ecological Events

  21. Spot Check 2 (Antecedents) 1. Name 1 thing to pay attention to when looking for the Antecedent. 2. Name all of the antecedent strategies and one example of each. 3. What is Establishing Operations? 4. Give 2 examples of Establishing Operations. 5. What are 2 types of behavior triggers?

  22. What is Behavior? • Psychology,Animal Behavior. • a.observable activity in a human or animal. • b.the aggregate of responses to internal and external stimuli.

  23. Behavior Must be OBSERVABLE and MEASURABLE • Form of a behavior • Function of a behavior

  24. Defining Behavior An observable and measurable act of an individual Not: -bad attitude -lazy -low self-esteem -frustrated -control, power -angry -lack of motivation -disrespectful • Behavior: • -running out into the hallway • -hitting desk with fist • -completing schoolwork early • -yelling expletives in class • -writing and passing notes to • classmates

  25. Consequence C is any event that follows a behavior

  26. C ONSEQUENCE What typically happens after the behavior of concern? What typically happens after appropriate behavior?

  27. Consequence Pay attention to: • What the adult(s) do • Give a verbal reprimand • Keep the student in for recess • Take away points • What the other student(s) do • Laugh at the student • Imitate the student

  28. Consequences • Reinforcement - event that follows a behavior which increases or maintains the future frequency of that behavior • Punishment– event that follows a behavior which decreases or eliminates the future frequency of that behavior

  29. The consequence with which a behavior is met will determine its likelihood of reoccurrence!

  30. Reinforcement or Punishment? We only know if a consequence is a reinforcement or a punishment by its effect on behavior NOT by our intent!!! (look at the future frequency of the behavior)

  31. Functions of Behavior To get:To escape: -attention -attention -activities -activities -objects -objects -stimulus -stimulus

  32. Why Determine the Function? Short term: To teach the student a new skill(replacement behavior) that achieves the same function as the behavior of concern. Ex. Hand raising, saying “Hi”.

  33. Spot Check 3 (Behaviors, Consequences, Function) 1. How do you know if your behavior is identified well? 2. Name 3 examples of good identifications of behavior and 3 examples of bad identifications of behavior. 3. When consequence is enforced, who do we pay attention to? 4. What are the 2 types of consequences? 5. How do we know if the consequence is a reinforcement or a punishment? 6. The function of behavior serves to get or escape (4 things).

  34. I Do Practice

  35. We Do Example 1 Jared talks out at least two times per class. He smiles, and other students snicker, when his teacher reminds him to raise his hand. Since the beginning of the year, the problem seems worse. • Do the reminders reinforce or punish him? How do you know? • What might be the function of this behavior?

  36. We Do Example 2 Colleen has an argument with someone in the cafeteria at least 3 times per week. The consequence is to stay in at recess and read or work on the computer with the teacher. • Is the consequence serving as a reward or punisher? • What might the function of Colleen’s behavior be?

  37. You Do Scenario #1 Tisha, a three year old with ASD, is building a block structure during work time. Her teacher tells the group that work time will be ending in 5 minutes. Tisha is not finished with her structure. When work time is over the teacher reminds the kids to clean up their work and put their materials away. Tisha starts kicking and screaming, hitting anyone who is near her. She hits the teacher who comes to tell her it is time to clean up. The teacher takes the blocks and puts them in the container, leaving a few for Tisha to put away. Tisha continues to kick and scream. This happens each time Tisha is reminded to clean up her work.

  38. Reinforcement or Punishment Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Function of Behavior

  39. You Do Scenario #2 Bob, a young man with Asperger Syndrome, yells out “This is stupid” when given an assignment in his inclusive social studies class. His teacher calls his name sternly and tells him that he has a WARNING. After a few minutes, Bob yells again “I don’t want to do this pathetic work”. The teacher yells at Bob and gives him STRIKE 1. After a few more minutes, Bob yells, “Only a moron would want to write about the Aztecs”. The teacher yells again, saying he is sick of Bob’s comments, Bob has a bad attitude, Bob has no consideration for his classmates, etc. and gives Bob STRIKE 2. Each time Bob comments, the teacher yells and gives him a strike. Bob behaves this way at least one time per day.

  40. Reinforcement or Punishment Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Function of Behavior

  41. You Do Scenario #3 Whenever Susie is given written tests, she both scribbles her name on the test and pushes it aside or she crumbles the test into a ball and throws it away. Her teacher tells her that she will receive a zero on the test, that she is failing the class, that she should have at least made an effort. The teacher also required that Susie spend the rest of the class time sitting quietly at her desk and not disturbing others.

  42. Reinforcement or Punishment Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Function of Behavior

  43. The Laws behind FBA! • Chapter 14 • Chapter 711

  44. NEW Chapter 14 and Chapter 711 §14.133(a), §711.46(a) • Behavior support programs and plans must be based on a functional assessment of behavior and utilize positive behavior techniques. • When an intervention is needed to address problem behavior, thetypes of intervention chosen for a particular student or eligible young child must be the least intrusive necessary.

  45. NEW Chapter 14 and Chapter 711 §14.133(a), §711.46 (a) The use of restraints is considered a measure of last resort, only to be used after other less restrictive measures, including de-escalation techniques.

  46. Chapter 14 and Chapter 711 NEW §14.133(b), §711.46(b) Positive behavior support plans – A plan for students with disabilities and eligible young children who require specific intervention to address behavior that interferes with learning. A positive support plan must: • Be developed by the IEP team, • Be based on a functional behavior assessment, • Becomes part of the individual eligible young child’s or student’s IEP

  47. NEW Chapter 14 and Chapter 711 §14.133(b), §711.46(b) Positive behavior support plans Such plans must include methods thatutilize positive reinforcement and other positive techniques to shape a student’s or eligible young child’s behavior, ranging from the use of positive verbal statements as a reward for good behavior to specific tangible rewards

  48. NEW Chapter 14 and Chapter 711 §14.133(f), §711.46(f) • School entitieshave the primary responsibility for ensuring that positive behavior support programs meet regulatory requirements, including • the training of personnel for the use of specific procedures, methods and techniques • having a written policy and procedureson the use of positive behavior support techniques and obtaining parental consent prior to the use of restraintsor intrusive procedures • In accordance with their plans, agencies may convene a review, including the use ofhuman rights committees, to oversee the use of restrictive or intrusive procedures or restraints.

  49. Chapter 14 and Chapter 711 NEW §14.133(h), §711.46(h) Subsequent to a referral to law enforcement, for students with disabilities who have positive behavior support plans, an updated functional behavior assessment and positive behavior support plan must be completed.

  50. The following methods may NOT be used… Corporal punishment Punishment for behavior that is caused by the student’s disability Locked rooms, locked boxes, or other locked structures or spaces from which the student cannot readily exit Noxious substances Deprivation of basic rights, such as withholding meals, water, or fresh air Treatment of a demeaning manner Electric shock Suspension or removal s from classes for disciplinary reasons that form a pattern. §14.133(e 1-8)