Functional Behavior Assessment &Positive Behavior Support Plans Presented by Samantha Levy
Behavior Plans in IEPs In the case of a child whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others, consider, when appropriate, strategies including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address behavior.
FBA & PBSP • Functional Behavior Assessment • Define behavior • Collect data • Determine the function of the behavior • Positive Behavior Support Plan • Make changes to the environment to include prevention strategies • Teach replacement behavior • Determine reactive strategies (ignore, redirect, crisis plan if needed) • Collect data • Review and revise
All Behavior Communicates Figuring out what the behavior communicates is the key to solving the problem.
Functional Behavior Assessment • Determine the function and communicative intent of the behavior. • The “form” of the behavior does not really matter; it’s the function.
Define the Target Behavior • An adequate description of the behavior will be the basis for collecting data and designing a plan. • A sound description will produce a common understanding of the problem. • Do not attempt to describe all of the difficult behaviors. Decide which behavior(s) need the most immediate attention.
Define the Target Behavior • “Jennifer plays in the corner by herself.” • “Kevin makes verbal threats to the teacher.” • “Brittany does not do her work.” Do not say what Brittany is not doing; say what she is doing. What is Brittany doing when she is not doing her work?
Before we Conduct a Functional Behavior Assessment: • When a student struggles academically, we look for instructional solutions. We should take the same approach for behavior difficulties. • Change instruction before you develop a complicated plan.
Assess Setting Events/Risk Factors • Biological setting events: • Fatigue • Physical pain and discomfort • Hunger/thirst • Medication
Assess Setting Events/Risk Factors • Physical setting events: • Noise • Humidity • Temperature • Crowding • Architecture/seating arrangements
Function of Behavior • The goal is to figure out the communicative intent of the behavior so an alternative way for the student to communicate his/her needs can be taught. • Even if a student has good verbal abilities and adequate cognitive skills, his/her misbehavior still acts as a communicative message.
The student’s needs are legitimate. It is the behavior used to communicate those needs that is not.
Possible Functions • Attention / Access • Escape / Avoid / Delay • Sensory stimulation • Control
Overall Intervention Strategy • Traditional Approach • Remediate problem behavior • Positive Behavior Support • Remediate deficient environments • Remediate deficient behavior repertoires (social skills, problem-solving skills, communication skills)
Guiding Principles • Teaching (supporting and developing skills) is the heart of the approach, not problem behavior suppression. • Redesigning environments (modifying the context) is the heart of approach, not contingency management. • A support plan vs. a control plan.
Step-by-Step • PREVENT • TEACH • REACT
Two Types of Preventative Strategies • Permanent environmental changes • Ongoing negative patterns and interactions • Temporary environmental adjustments • Immediately decrease problem behavior • Gives opportunity to teach new skills • Shape behavior back to normalized routine • Varies widely depending on student’s needs
Prevention strategies are the most important component of behavior intervention plans.
TEACH Problem behavior generally occurs for two reasons: Skill deficits or performance deficits. Remember: “diagnosis matters”
Replacement Behavior • “Fair-pair rule”: For every behavior that is decreased, a different behavior must be increased. • Can’t “stamp out” behaviors in individuals.
Problem behavior: hitting Communication: “Hi” Principal of Functional Equivalence ATTENTION If you strengthen one behavior, the other behavior becomes irrelevant.
When a functionally equivalent response is taught, one should see a decrease in the frequency of the problem behavior.
REACT Effective reactive strategies reduce the intensity and frequency of the behavior because it is no longer effective, efficient, or desirable.
Ideas for reactive strategies • Ignoring • Do NOT ignore the student; ignore the behavior • Redirection • Break the “cycle” of the behavior • Presenting feedback • Non-threatening; what to do next
Summary • PREVENT • TEACH • REACT
Insanity: Doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. Albert Einstein