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Functional Behavior Assessment

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Functional Behavior Assessment

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  1. Functional Behavior Assessment

  2. Organizer • Background and rationale for FBA • Steps to conducting an FBA • Key components/outcomes of FBA • Tools to be introduced: • Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS) • Data Collection (observation) Sheets • Practice • Follow-up

  3. Introductions: Your experience with FBA 1… I know FBA is important and would like to learn more about it 2…I know a little but haven’t really done it 3…I know a little and have tried it 4…I have successfully implemented a FBA and worked to implement a corresponding BSP 5…I’m an expert in FBA

  4. FBA and the Law The legal minimum… “Functional behavioral assessment” means an individualized assessment of the student that results in a hypothesis about the function of a student’s behavior and, as appropriate, recommendations for a behavior intervention plan. (OAR 581-015-2400) Manifestation Determination Conduct a functional behavioral assessment, unless the district conducted a FBA before the behavior occurred that prompted the disciplinary action, and implement a behavior intervention plan; or If the student already has a behavior plan, review the behavioral intervention plan and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior (OAR 581-015-2415)

  5. Best Practice Recommendations Continuum of evidence-based supports Systems first, then individuals Focus on prevention and early intervention Individualized function-based planning for those with intensive needs Behavior support plan including objective, measurable goals and progress monitoring Designed with context in consideration “Working” document that is used and revised

  6. Multi Tiered Instruction Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Tier III Interventions Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior and Academic Difficulties Tier II Interventions Specialized Group Systems for Students who are at-risk for behavior and academic difficulties Tier I Interventions School-/Classroom- Wide Systems and Instruction for All Students, Staff, & Settings

  7. Multi Tiered Instruction Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Tier III Interventions Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior and Academic Difficulties FBA Tier II Interventions Specialized Group Systems for Students who are at-risk for behavior and academic difficulties Tier I Interventions School-/Classroom- Wide Systems and Instruction for All Students, Staff, & Settings

  8. Why do People Behave? Modeling? Accident? Instinct? Condition? Why do people continue behaving? IT WORKS!!!

  9. Understanding Chronic Misbehavior • If a student repeatedly engages in a problem behavior, he/she is most likely doing it for a reason, because it is paying off for the student • The behavior is functional or serves a purpose • Behavior is a form of communication, unfortunately some students learn that problem behavior is the best way for them to get their needs met

  10. Rationale for FBA • Recognize that recurring misbehavior occurs for a reason, and take this into account when determining how to respond to misbehavior • We can understand how to intervene most effectively with a student by identifying the function (or purpose) of their behavior • Focus on what we can change! • We cannot prescribe medicine • We cannot change the student’s previous experience • We often cannot change parenting practices • Some venting is good/necessary, but it can often lead to less productive meetings

  11. What is FBA? • A systematic process for developing statements about environmental and contextual factors that • Contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of problem behavior, And, more importantly, • Serve as basis for developing proactive and comprehensive behavior support plans

  12. Spectrum of FBA Methods • Indirect • Interviews only (teacher, parent, student) • Direct without environmental manipulation • Interviews • Observations • Structural analysis • Interviews • Structured observations • Systematically altering antecedents • Experimental analysis (functional analysis) • Setting up controlled conditions

  13. What are the Steps to Conducting an FBA? • Establish a Knowledgeable FBA Team • Use an interview to identify: • Student strengths • Target behavior(s) • Identification of relevant routines • Identification of environmental variables • Antecedents, Consequences, Setting Events • Use to create testable Summary Statement • Conduct at least one “ABC” observation • Focus on Antecedents, Behaviors, Consequences • Use observation data to confirm information from interview • Use FBA information to build Behavior Support Plan

  14. Establish a Knowledgeable FBA Team • Knowledgeable about the individual • His/her behavior, interests, strengths, challenges, future • Knowledgeable about the context • Instructional goals, curriculum, social contingencies, schedule, • physical setting • Knowledgeable about behavioral technology • Elements of behavior • Principles of behavior • Intervention strategies • Administrative support • Parent support • Involving the student • Choosing reinforcers • Older students for assessment interviews

  15. Use an Interview • FACTS Interview (Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff) • Designed to be conducted with the teacher(s) and staff most • familiar with the individual student and the problem behaviors • that are occurring • 20-45 minutes depending on complexity of problem behavior • Should be conducted prior to behavior support plan meeting

  16. Conduct “ABC” Observation(s) • At least one observation should be conducted to confirm information gained from FACTS interview • At a minimum, observe student during setting/routine where problem behavior is most likely to occur • Focus on: • Antecedents (what triggers problem behavior?) • Behavior (what does the problem behavior look like? How often • does it occur?) • Consequences (what happens directly after problem behavior • occurs? How do adults and other students • respond?) • Observation forms: • FAO observation form • Generic ABC observation forms

  17. Build Behavior Support Plan • Schedule support plan meeting after interview and observations have been conducted • Use interview and observation data to build Behavior Support Plan • Behavior Support Plan training

  18. Critical Features and Outcomes of an FBA

  19. What are the Critical Features of an FBA? • Operationally defined problem behavior • Clear and measurable definition of target problem behaviors • Define the antecedent events (triggers) that predict when the problem behavior is most likely to occur • Define the consequence that contributes most to maintaining the problem behavior in that routine (i.e., the function of the behavior) • Summary statement of findings • Direct observation data to confirm summary statement • Behavior support plan developed based on summary statement

  20. Feature 1: Target Behavior Operationally defining behavior: • Behavior must be observable and measurable • Unambiguous and objective • Tells exactly what the student says or does • Can you see the behavior? • Can you count the behavior? • Observable beginning and end • Independent observers agree

  21. Feature 1: Target Behavior Non-observable vs. Observable Definition: (-) hyperactivity (+) initiates 5 different tasks within 2 minutes (+) leaves room at least 3 times during a 30 minute lesson

  22. Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his first OR Aggressive

  23. Which is described in observable terms? Delinquent OR Takes money from peers

  24. Which is described in observable terms? Psychotic OR Says she hears voices

  25. Which is described in observable terms? Arrives 10 minutes late OR Irresponsible

  26. Operationally Defining Behavior • Talking out • Any vocalizations that are not initiated by the teacher, are out of • turn, or are unrelated to academic content • Off-task • Eyes oriented away from teacher/instructional materials, using • materials inappropriately, and/or fails to comply with teacher • requests within 5-sec of the request Operational Definitions- A Test • Can you count the behavior? • Will a stranger know what to look for? • Can you break the definition into smaller components that are more specific and observable?

  27. What are the Critical Features of an FBA? • Operationally defined problem behavior • Clear and measurable definition of target problem behaviors • Define the antecedent events (triggers) that predict when the problem behavior is most likely to occur • Define the consequence that contributes most to maintaining the problem behavior in that routine (i.e., the function of the behavior) • Summary statement of findings • Direct observation data to confirm summary statement • Behavior support plan developed based on summary statement

  28. Feature 2: Understanding Predictors • First, identify antecedents generally • What typically happens just before problem behavior to • trigger it? • If this trigger were in place 10 times, how often would it result • in problem behavior? • Does the problem behavior ever happen when the trigger is • absent/opposite of trigger? • If you wanted to set up the student to engage in the problem • behavior, what would you do?

  29. Feature 2: Understanding Predictors • Next, identify specific features of the antecedent • What specific activity? • Which specific peers? • What tasks? • The more specifically you can narrow, the better you can prevent • the problem behavior from occurring. Examples: • Independent math worksheets • Large group reading • Unstructured activities when sitting near preferred peers

  30. What are the Critical Features of an FBA? • Operationally defined problem behavior • Clear and measurable definition of target problem behaviors • Define the antecedent events (triggers) that predict when the problem behavior is most likely to occur • Define the consequence that contributes most to maintaining the problem behavior in that routine (i.e., the function of the behavior) • Summary statement of findings • Direct observation data to confirm summary statement • Behavior support plan developed based on summary statement

  31. Feature 3: Understanding Consequences and Function Consequence • What happens immediately after the behavior? • How do peers respond? • How do the adults respond? • What are the consequences for the student? • What activities change or stop? • How many times out of 10 do each of these responses occur • following the problem behavior? • Examples: • Sent to office Behavior is ignored • Peers laugh at student Student is verbally corrected

  32. Feature 3: Understanding Consequences and Function Consequence • Narrowing down potential consequences: • Would the behavior still happen if that consequence didn’t exist? • Peer attention: If no peers were around? • Adult attention: If no adults were around? • Escape: If the task were easier? • Of the last 10 times you saw this behavior, how often did that • consequence occur? • Consequence vs. Function • The consequence is the event that occurs immediately after • problem behavior • Function is what the student is getting out of the behavior

  33. What are the 2 Basic Functions?

  34. Feature 3: Understanding Consequences and Function Function • The general outcome of a behavior, the purpose • We need to understand behavior from the student perspective… What is the student gaining/avoiding? Access peer attention, avoid peer attention Access task/activity, avoid task/activity Access adult attention, avoid adult attention Non-examples: Retaliation, intimidation, fear, control

  35. What are the Critical Features of an FBA? • Operationally defined problem behavior • Clear and measurable definition of target problem behaviors • Define the antecedent events (triggers) that predict when the problem behavior is most likely to occur • Define the consequence that contributes most to maintaining the problem behavior in that routine (i.e., the function of the behavior) • Summary statement of findings • Direct observation data to confirm summary statement • Behavior support plan developed based on summary statement

  36. Feature 4: Summary Statement • Four Parts • Predictors/antecedents • Target Behavior(s) • Consequences (maintaining function) • Setting event(s) – when appropriate 4 1 2 3

  37. What is a “Setting Event”? • Unique situations in which factors unique to the individual: • Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur by changing the value of reinforcers • Examples include illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict • Escape from a task may be more reinforcing to a student if they • are tired • In many cases, there will not be a relevant setting event • Ask about potential setting events in your interview, but try • not to get hung up on this! If there isn’t one, just move on.

  38. Feature 4: Summary Statement 4 1 2 3 Skips breakfast Asked to complete Lays on the Escape task an academic task floor and kicks (1) When asked to complete an academic task, Jimmy (2) lays on the floor and kicks at his teachers in order to (3) escape the task. This is more likely to occur on days when Jimmy does not eat breakfast.

  39. Feature 4: Summary Statement 4 1 2 3 Transitions between Pushes and hits Gain classes other students and attention uses inappropriate from language peers • During transitions between classes, Nicky (2) pushes and hits other students and uses inappropriate language in order to (3) gain attention from peers.

  40. Feature 4: Summary Statement • The summary statement is a testable hypothesis • After conducting the FACTS interview, you will have a summary statement • This summary statement can be tested/confirmed by conducting ABC observation(s) • Observations may reveal additional or contradictory information • Use your observation data to revise your summary statement

  41. Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff(FACTS)

  42. The Role of the FACTS • An indirect component of an FBA • Brief, structured interview that helps gather information about environmental events that precede and follow problem behavior • Ultimately leads to the development of a Summary Statement- the first step in creating an effective behavior support plan.

  43. Part A Student strengths Problem behavior(s) Routines analysis Target routine(s)

  44. Example: Routines

  45. Description of Problem Behavior Targeted routine Problem behavior detail

  46. Example: Problem Behavior Description

  47. Antecedents Guiding questions Antecedent category Follow-up questions Setting events

  48. Example: Antecedents

  49. Example: Setting Events

  50. Consequences Guiding questions Consequence category Follow-up questions