Let’s Talk about Earth “It is a curious feature of our existence that we come from a planet that is very good at promoting life but even better at extinguishing it.” - Bill Bryson A Brief History of Nearly Everything
At a Glance. • 4.54 billion years old • Composition is mostly water • Wide array of elements • Complex systems that regulate life and the conditions for life • Life in many forms – 99% extinction rate
Adapt & Survive • Charles Darwin showed us that life evolves • Gradual changes that allow life to meet the demands of its environment • Continuous process. If not, what happens? Appendix – Digest leafy food Adrenal Glands – Fight mechanism Virus – Anti-biotic resistant
No Place for Wimps Earth: Total Land Area – 29% 1/5 Too Cold for Humans 1/5 Too Dry for Humans 1/5 Too Steep for Humans 1/5 Unable to Sustain Large Populations 90% of the population lives on 1/5 of the land
Getting to Know the Planet • A magical and messed up place: A) Vast Divisions Resources • Population • Wealth • Political (In)Stability Each can bring prosperity and challenges
Population Pyramids & Data Value Question: Why is population study important? • Birth & Death rates • Fertility rates • Taxation rates / general government spending – Old vs. Young population 4) Economic growth 5) Immigration strategies
Population 101 Defined: The total number of inhabitants of a given area Why is Population Important? • Survival of species • Environmental impact • Government data • Economics
The Population Bomb Theory of Thomas Malthus • We produce in an unlimited fashion • We have limited resources • Measure need to be put in place to curb population growth
Population Pressure Carrying Capacity – The number of living organisms that a region can support without degradation of environment
What Does it Mean? Fertility Rate Infant Mortality Rate Birth Rate Death Rate
Fertility Rate Average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime
Infant Mortality The number of infant deaths (one year of age or younger) per 1000 live births Major issue in developing countries: • Dehydration • Diarrhea • Pneumonia
Birth & Death Rate Birthrate – The number of live births per thousand of population per year
Do The Math Birth rate= Births/Population x 1000 Canada: Population - 33,987,876 Births 2004 – 91,003
Physical Quality of Life Index Measures the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics: Basic literacy rate, Infant mortality Life expectancy at age one Decided by the United Nations
D, LD, LLD D = Developed LD = Developing LLD = Least Developed
Developed Country: Long life expectancy Low infant mortality Low poverty rates High industrial development High literacy & schooling rates
Developing Country: Higher levels of poverty Agricultural-based economy Economically unstable Moderate literacy & schooling rates
Least Developed: Low socio-economic development High poverty & unemployment rates Sparse economic opportunity High rate of curable disease Reduced access to schooling
Examples Developed States - ? Developing States - ? Least Developed States - ?
Globalization • The shrinking of the world through economics, technology and travel I’ve been everywhere
Globalization Pros & Cons Pros of Globalization: • Longer lifespan (medicine, medical engineering, R&D) • Increased personal income • Access to technology • Promotion of Human Rights • Cultural Diffusion – sharing of ideas • Social Solidarity – working to make society a better place to live
Modern Globalization • Driven by Economics & Technology • Economics/Tech has shrunken the world and generally enhanced wealth and prosperity
How? • Countries trade with each other freely • This has caused great prosperity • This is called Free Trade • No taxes or duty on products moving across borders
Economics in a Globalized World • Resources and labor now transcend borders • Increased cooperation among countries and businesses for a common goal – wealth and prosperity • Free Trade is the central cog in the wheel
Free Trade Nuts & Bolts • States have an incentive to keep dollars within their borders – Why? • Barriers are in place to defend against an outflow of money –Protectionism • Barriers are called Tariffs or Duties
Freer Trade • As the world become more globalized, trade increased dramatically • It was now cumbersome to put restrictions on trade – slowed economic growth • Trade ‘Free’ of tariffs emerged • Explosion of Free Trade Agreements
What Free Trade Means • Increased cooperation amongst nations • Increased capacity for wealth • Lower prices for consumers (most of the time) • Chance for corporations to become multi-national
Mo Money • MNCs have access to a range of capital (resources) • Invest in growth • Technology at the forefront • Massive leaps in tech growth
The Good: Political Globalization • Advances in technology has allowed for the promotion of human rights • Empirical evidence • Allows Human Rights Organizations to make known the scope and scale of abuses • Pressure governments or international organizations to respond – what does respond mean?
Globalization: The Bad • Better technology, improved transportation and free trade have not always created good things • Environmental Exploitation • Human Exploitation
Globalization: The Bad - Environment • Explosion of wealth and prosperity has exacted a toll on the planet • LLD states are fast industrializing More cars, more industry, more people
Globalization Gap • Increased wealth worldwide has been distributed disproportionately.
Reflection Questions Transnational Credit Auction • Please complete the following the submit • Identify the ‘human consequences’ associated with auctions like this. • Based on your experience with the auction, explain the extent you agree or disagree with this statement: Poor countries need investment, so it’s A good thing when MNCs invest there
3) What, if anything, could poor countries do to stop the race to the bottom in foreign investment.
Interrupt the System • Fair Trade Movement – companies that guarantee a fair price is paid to commodities producers – The Tall & Small • Buy Local Movement – 150km range of products
How Did You Do? Step 1: • Compare the data for your 5 countries? Are they consistent? Step 2: • Is the data for your developed countries directly opposite of your least developed? Step 3: • Do your developing states contain data in between D & LLD?
Global Changes After reading the provided article: - Using two (2) examples, identify positive changes that are taking place in ME/NA countries related to human rights – esp with women.
Looking Ahead: Political Globalization • Social media is revolutionizing political globalization • Facebook/Youtube/Twitter are allowing the world a unique glimpse at human rights issues • Used extensively in the Arab Spring – a series of revolutions in the Middle East
Population & State Problems • Food Access & Availability • LLD Exploitation • Economic Depression/Exploitation • Energy Needs