Group:- • “A group is unit composed of two or more persons who come into contact for a purpose & who consider the contact meaningful”. • “A group is collection of individual in which the existence of all is necessary to the satisfaction of certain individual needs of each” • Group is defined as two or more individual ,interacting & interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. • A groups is a set of two or more individuals who are jointly characterized by a network of relevant communication , a shared disposition with associated normative strength. • A group is any number of people who interact with one another perceive them self to be a group.
Group characteristics:- • Goals • Group must have some common purpose or goals that bind the group together • Interaction • Interaction is communication ,such communication may be oral or by gesture or by nodding the head. • Belongingness • Group member must perceive themselves as part of the group. • Role • Each member has some role assigned by the group. according to role member doing their work. • Awareness • People in group must aware of each other & must relate to each other in some way or other. • Group perception • The member of a group should perceives themselves as a collective identity. • Norms • There are certain norms of the groups that represent its culture or ethos.
Importance of group • Groups helps an individuals to achieve self satisfaction , status, safety, security • Groups helps in understanding social values & norms • It improves the behaviour & performance of an individuals and enhance the dedication towards organizational goal • Helps in getting job done • Facilitate group decision making • Improves social interaction
Purpose / Reasons of Group Formation • To achieve objective & goals • Group gives strength & courage to the member • For satisfying needs • To complete task • For achieving closeness & attention of others • Groups can be formed when task is too big for one person. • For finding their own identity • For building up their self-respect & moral people needs a group. • Security & protection
Components of group / Group structure • Role • Norms • Size • Cohesiveness • Status
1.Role • Role is the part played by an individual in accordance with the expectation of other member from him. • Every role is unique ,separate & well defined • As the role in which the person is currently, the behavior of the person also changes. • People has to play multiple roles simultaneously. • In an orgenisation commonly played role are a)Task-oriented:- A employee who is helps his group to achieve their goals b)Self oriented :-A employee doing thing for achieving personal goal without thinking about the group plays c)Relation oriented:-A employee is helpful , supportive & who makes other happy • When there is difference between the perceived role & the enacted role it result into role conflict • unity of command & direction eliminate role conflicts but it is rare in real life situation
2.Norms • Norms are acceptable standards of behaviour that are shared by group members. • Norms tell what a member should do what he shouldn’t. • Norms are backbone of an individual behavior • Members can act ,interact & perform their task as per the rules & standards of behaviour • It reduce conflicts & interpersonal problem among members & result in increasing group performance. • Norms are mostly made in following ways:- • Explicit statement made by the group leader • With past experience • Primary is the first behavioural pattern that emerges in the group’s first interaction. • Norms are two types • Prescriptive norms dictate the behavior that should be performed • Proscriptive norms dictate the behavior that should be avoided by members • Some general norms in group • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources norms • Formalized norms –they are written & accepted by the orgenisation as manual. • Informal norms
3.Size • The size of group can have profound implication on how the group behaves internally & with regards to other groups • Group size having even number of member is more efficient while performing complex task. • When quick decision are to be taken ,group size with odd number of member is proffered • Benefits Of smaller size group:- • They can easily managed • Participation of member is more • They are better in performing quality task • Members are more satisfied than the larger groups • Benefits of larger size group:- • Problem solving is better • Participation of member is more • For fact finding larger groups are better because they are good at getting diverse input & hence action taken by them are more effective • Drawbacks of larger size group:- • Domination by few member on the whole group. • Turnover & absenteeism increases as group size increases • Member get few opportunities to participate in task • Chances of splitting into sub-groups are more. • production blocking • When members try to create hurdle for each other while performing their task it is called production blocking
4.Cohesiveness • “It is the degree to which the members are attracted towards each other & are motivated to stay together in the group” • “it refers to the degree to which group members from strong collective unit reflecting a feeling of oneness” • Cohesiveness can be increased by- • Keeping group size small • Members must interact frequently • Members should spend more time together • Keep high group status • Team success also increases cohesiveness • Giving rewards high low Performance norms high low
Factors determining the group cohesiveness • Status of the group • Size of the group • Nature of the group • Communication • Location of the group • Autonomy • Leadership style • Outside pressure • Management behaviour • Common element
Importance of High Cohesiveness High Cohesiveness- Unity- Interactive- Positive Feelings- Ability to Cope with Problems- More Productive Low Cohesiveness- Disarray- Negative Feelings- More Problems- Less Productive Source: Brilhart, J., Galanes, G., and Adams, K. (2002). Effective Group Discussion. Boston: McGraw-Hill Publishing High Cohesiveness is our Goal!
5.Status • Status is the rank or the social position given to a group member by others. • Status gained by personal characteristics such as age, gender , skill • Status gives some role & some rights to an individual • Status direct ally influences the group performance & behaviour • Positive effect • It helps in deciding the hierarchy of authority & responsibility within the group. • Negative effect • High status reduces the frequency of interaction among the members • They criticize others ,interrupt others & speak out more
Group development life cycle /models • Two models of group development cycle • Five stage model • Punctuated –equilibrium mode
1.Five stage model • this model is proposed by Bruce tuck man in 1965 • Stage -Forming • the objective of this stage are to decide purpose ,leadership & pattern of interaction • Members try to satisfy their personal goals for which they have joined group • They are more concerned with exploring friendship • they try to increase their commitment towards the group members & group goals • A member start themselves as part of the group & they are committed towards the group • Members are quite dependant on each other ,establishes basic rules & tentative group structure • Stage -Storming • High degree of conflict among the members as they compete for their position in the group • Conflicts regarding a) Group structure & role of individual b)Authority c)To cultivate belongingness amongst the members • At the end of this stage there is clear hierarchy of power for performing any task & the leader has been decided • At the end of this stage conflict will resolved completely group develops systematically & gets synergy.
Stage- Norming • Leader tries to bind all the member together • Leader set standard rules & behavioural expectation for the members • Role & responsibility are clear • Member focus on decision making • A close relationship has been developed • There is harmony & cohesiveness among the members • There is identity of group which can recognized by others • Stage -Performing • At this stage group perform its task to achieve desired output • Group is fully functional & operational • Team work is maximum • Productivity & quality of work is best • Satisfactory performance & achievement of group goals are observed at the end. • Group member feel proud of their work
5. Stage -Adjourning • these groups have been formed with the motive of performing some limited number task • More concentrate on wrapping up things. • Members are happy & satisfied as they have finished their task successfully. • Leader appreciate the group member • sometimes group may be adjourned even before completing the task because of misunderstanding
Punctuated –equilibrium model • Phase-I:- • The first meeting of group decide strategies for completing the task assigned to them • Decide the behavioural pattern of group • Burst energy or transition period • Changes like dropping old pattern or strategies & discovering new perspectives for adoption end of phase –I • This periods leads to the revolutionary changes in the members • Phase –II • group execute the strategies or plan decided in the transition period • Stage-1 • Mutual acceptance can be created • This stage members try to gain knowledge about each other by interacting & exchanging some information • Group start discussing the issue regarding the purpose of the group this stage • Stage -2 • Decide group goals, objective of group • Each member assigned task for achieving those goals • Role of each member is being decided at this stage.
Stage-3 • This stage is being characterized by motivation & productivity • Here co-operation amongst members increase • Members are self-directed & self-motive • Stage-4 • this stage known as control & orgenisation • Group evaluates the activities performed & their results & take corrective action • At end this stage the group become mature & effective group • At the end member become interdependent & competent.
Types Of Group • Formal group • Informal group • Group based on the place of existence • Family group • Friendship group • Functional group • Task /project group • Interest groups. • Group based on formation & development • Primary group • Secondary group • Membership group • Reference group • In groups • Out groups • Coalitions • Group base on the nature of membership • Open group • Closed group
1.Formal Group • A formal group is created to perform specific task & to achieve organizational goals. • “the group defined by the organization's structure with designated work assignment establishing task” • A group is originated after proper planning • A group is stable • Groups are rational • Rules & regulation are well defined • Groups satisfy the need of affiliation of members • Hierarchy of authority exists • Influence of power flows from top to bottom • High accuracy • Communication is one way i.e. management to employees • Member interact on the basis of functional duties assigned to them • Relationship between members is determined by the roles & job assigned to them.
2.Informal Group • These groups are the natural formations in the orgenisation for satisfying social needs • “Informal group are alliances that are neither formerly structured nor organizationally determined” ex-three employee of different department who regularly eat lunch together • Group is dynamic & unstable • Don’t have formal structure • Important goal is member’s satisfaction . • Members behavior is guided by individual’s perceptions sanctioned by social approvals. • They are not organizationally determined and members roles are not clearly defined. • These groups are highly constructive or destructive • Informal group can resist the change & can create problem for organizational development. • Communication has high speed but low accuracy
Benefits associated with informal group • Make more effective system • It encourage cooperation • Give satisfaction & stability to work groups • Improve communication • Contribute to higher cohesiveness. Problems associated with informal group • Develop undesirable rumors • Encourage negative attitude • Resist change • Reject & harasses some employees • Operates outside of management’s control
3.Group based on the place of existence • Family groups- • it is type of informal group • Friendship group:- • it is informal group • Members helps each other in solving problems & performing better • Functional group:- • These group exist as per the nature of operation & function of the orgenisation • Member interact & interdependent for performing their task • Task/project group: • Individuals with special interest or expertise required to perform the task • Once the task is complete group is dissolved • Group formed for short term or long term • Interest groups:- • Individuals with common interest form a group to serve their interests.
4.Group based on formation & development • Primary group:- • Charles H colly was started the concept of primary groups • primary group are the type of natural groups. • All primary groups are small groups • These group formed on the basis of social characteristics & individual perception . • Secondary group:- • They are formed & developed with formal structure • One member is leader & other are follower • ex. Committee , trade union • Membership group;- • There are type of formal group • Certain rules & regulation for registration to the group • Charge & collect fees from individual for joining group • Function of the leader & follower are well defined • Reference group:- • It is type of informal group • It forms the bases for interest & friendship groups. • These groups can exist within or outside the orgenisation. 5. Coalitions:- • Interacting group members • Mutual perception of members • Formed for achieving specific purpose • They are very powerful & effective entities in the orgenisation
5.Group based on the nature of membership • Open Groups:- • The group which is in the constant state of change is known as open group. • Members keep on changing i.e –they have short term membership • Ex-selection committee • New members join while existing ones leave the group. • As new members join they bring new ideas & views to the group activities & problems • Closed groups:- • The group which is quite stable is known as closed group. • Ex-Board of directors • Long term membership • The group experience stability & equilibrium in the group
Group Formation Theories 1.Balance Theory:- • Balance theory originated by fritz heider & Theodore Newcomb • “according theory when tension arises between or inside people ,they will attempt to reduce their tension through self persuasion or trying to persuade others.” • According theory people are attracted to each other on the basis of similar attitudes towards common objective & goals • Balance theory proposes there are three ways in which person can feel balance • First source & receiver can both dislike something & at the same time like each other ,so they experience comfort & balance • Second the source & receiver can have positive attitude toward an object or idea & display positive feelings towards one another • Third ,the source & receiver can disagree about an idea or object & also dislike each other ,therefore experiencing comfort because they know that they disagree about certain value
2.Systems Theory:- • Systems theory was proposed by Ludwig von bertalanffy in 1950 • It states that group are open systems ,which are influenced by such independent variable as openness to environment interdependence , input variable, process variable, output variables. • Systems theory explain the process of input ,processes ,output & environment which groups engage in. • Ex.-if the input of group is group task ,then the output is productivity.
Social exchange theory:- • This theory said that all human relation ship are formed by the use of a subjective cost- benefit analysis & the comparison of alternatives. • The most important reason why individuals join or form a group is ,however that group tend to satisfy the very intense social needs of most people . • Individuals have different expectation of relationship , an individual satisfaction with relationship depends on more than just the outcome. • Outcome = benefits-costs • satisfaction=outcome- comparison level • Satisfaction is not enough to determine whether a person stays within a relationship or leaves for an alternative 4. Propinquity theory • it means individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. • In orgenisation employee who work in the same area of the plant or office & offices to close one another would more probably form into group
5. Rational choice theory:- • Rational choice theory ,which is derived from neoclassical economics ,focuses on how actors seek to achieve their ends or goals in the face of limited resources & institution • It is originated by James Coleman • Rational individuals choose the alternative that is likely to give them the greatest satisfaction & maximum output • Rational theory makes two assumption about individuals preference for action • Completeness:-all action can be ranked in an order of preference • Transitivity:-if action a1 is preferred to 2,& a2 is preferred to a3,then a1 is preferred to a3 6. Group contingency theory:- • Benoit-Smullyan he observed that a person in a given society can be ranked on variety of dimension such age, education ,income, occupational, power & such ranks tend towards equilibrium • Leon festinger suggest a reason for joining a group .we relay on others for referencing & validation of our views=“social comparison” • Tendency for groups that invite new member tend to prefer a person who display inferior skills & abilities
Group decision making methods • It is process of selection from a set of alternatives courses of action which is thought to fulfill the objective of the decision problem more satisfactorily than other. • Brainstorming:- • It is developed by Alex F Osbern • Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which a group tries to find a solution for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members. • It involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative course of action. • It is unstructured • The situation is described as much detail as necessary so that group members have a complete understanding of the issue of problem • Leader will solicits ideas from all members of the group ,the ideas are recorded on a flip chart or marker board. • Once the idea of the group members have been exhausted then group member evaluate the different idea /suggestion presented • In recent year some decision making groups have utilized electronic brainstorming
2.Nominal Group Technique • It used when high degree of innovation & idea generation is required. • It restrict discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision making process • The nominal group technique is a structured decision making process in which group members are required to compose a comprehensive list of their ideas or proposed alternative in writing • A group decision making method in which individual member meet face to face to pool their judgment in systematic but independent fashion • First problem is presented & then the following step take place • Members meet as group, before any discussion take place each member independently write down ideas about the problem • After this each member present one idea to the group, no discussion take place until all ideas have been recorded • The group then discus the ideas for clarity & evaluates them • Each group member silently & independently ranks the ideas in order of value or Quality. the idea with higher aggregate ranking determine the final decision.
3.Delphi technique:- • It is developed by Rand corporation • This technique used by decision making groups when the individual members are in different physical locations. • Members are selected for the Delphi panel due to their expertise. • They are kept separated and answer through an open-ended questionnaires, surveys, etc. in order to solicit specific information about a subject or content area. • Keeping them separated avoids the negative effects of face-to-face discussions and avoids problems associated with group dynamics. • Members are asked to share their assessment and explanation of a problem or predict a future state of affairs. • The facilitator (panel director) controls the interactions among the participants by processing the information and filtering out irrelevant content. • Steps of Delphi technique • The problem is defined • A sample of expert selected • Questionnaire are developed & sent • Response are compiled & summarized into questionnaire • Participate are asked to re-evaluate response • The response are compiled & new question may prepared • Cycle stops when consensus is reached • Solution is developed • The major merits of the Delphi process are: • Elimination of interpersonal problems. • Efficient patrician use of expert's time. • Diversity of ideals. • Accuracy of solutions and predictions.
Advantage Of group decision making • Diversity: • Varied experiences: • Greater Acceptability of decisions: • Error detection: • collective understanding: • Less influence of bias: • more creative solutions • shared responsibility: • simplifies complex decisions: Disadvantage Of group decision making • Time consuming • potential for conflict • cost to organizations • lack of objective direction: In a group without a leader, there may be a lack of direction and the decisions arrived at may be vague or ambiguous. Read more:
Group think • it is defined as when group makes faulty decision because group pressure leads to deterioration of “mental efficiency ,reality testing & moral judgment”. • Symptoms • Illusion of invulnerability • Ignoring dangers signals & taking extreme risk • Collective rationalization • Ignoring warning & signals & do not consider assumption • Unquestioned morality • Believing that the group position is ethical & moral & that all other are inherently evil • Direct pressure on dissenters • Members under pressure not to express argument against any of the group views • Illusion of unanimity • If someone does not speak it assumed that he or she in full agree • minimize the groupthink in following ways • Minimize the group size • Leader show play impartial role • Appoint one group member to play role of advocate • Discussion on diverse alternatives without threatening the group
Social loafing • Tendency of people to expend fewer efforts when working collectively than when working individually • Reasons for social loafing • Free rider effect where some members do not put their share of work under the assumption that other efforts will cover their shortfall • Sucker effect fully performing members lower their efforts in response to the free riders attitude • Equitable contribution team members believes that other are not putting much efforts • Team member feel they can hide in crowd & avoid the consequences • Unequal distribution of compensation • effects of social loafing • Lack of satisfaction • Negatively impact on individuals • Decreased group performance • Less productivity • Social loafing reduced in following ways • Assigning interesting & skillful task • Form smaller size group • Assign specialized task to individuals
Preventing social loafing • Develop rules of conduct • Create appropriate group size • Establish individual accountability • Encourage group loyalty • Choose complementary team member • Specifically define the task • Highlight achievement • Establish task importance • Evaluate progress • Create personal relationship
Group dynamics • 1. Interaction of complex intra- and inter-personal forces operating in a group which determine its character, development, and long-term survival. • 2. Field of study concerned with determination of laws underlying group behavior. • 3. group dynamics may be defined as the social process by which people interact face to face in small group