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  1. Communal Conversion;The Transition of a Nation Presented by Imam Kashif Abdul-Karim Muhammad Islamic Center of Greater Hartford, CT. May 11, 2013 2nd Annual Uswah Conference .

  2. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage.

  3. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement

  4. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition

  5. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition • Growth

  6. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition • Growth • Development

  7. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition • Growth • Development • Change

  8. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition • Growth • Development • Change • Convert from one thing to another

  9. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition • Growth • Development • Change • Convert from one thing to another • Conversion

  10. Stages لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ La tar ka bunnatabaqanAAantabaqin 84:19 (Y. Ali) Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage. • Movement • Transition • Growth • Development • Change • Convert from one thing to another • Conversion • Communal Conversion

  11. Conversion VS Communal Conversion

  12. Conversion VS Communal Conversion Conversion speaks to the individual exchange process of moving from one faith to another.

  13. Conversion VS Communal Conversion • Conversion speaks to the individual exchange process of moving from one faith to another. • Christian to Muslim

  14. Conversion VS Communal Conversion • Conversion speaks to the individual exchange process of moving from one faith to another. • Christian to Muslim • Jew to Muslim

  15. Conversion VS Communal Conversion • Conversion speaks to the individual exchange process of moving from one faith to another. • Christian to Muslim • Jew to Muslim • Atheist to Muslim

  16. Conversion VS Communal Conversion • Conversion speaks to the individual exchange process of moving from one faith to another. • Christian to Muslim • Jew to Muslim • Atheist to Muslim • The Individual conversion process began during the days of The Prophet. It was a rapid growth process among the people of Mecca and Medina.

  17. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process.

  18. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another.

  19. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. • Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another. • Saudi Arabia moving from tribal religion, polytheism, and paganism to Islam

  20. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. • Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another. • Saudi Arabia moving from tribal religion, polytheism, and paganism to Islam • African nations moving from tribal religion, Animism and other faiths to Islam

  21. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. • Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another. • Saudi Arabia moving from tribal religion, polytheism, and paganism to Islam • African nations moving from tribal religion, Animism and other faiths to Islam • Indian Nations moving from Hinduism to Islam

  22. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. • Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another. • Saudi Arabia moving from tribal religion, polytheism, and paganism to Islam • African nations moving from tribal religion, Animism and other faiths to Islam • Indian Nations moving from Hinduism to Islam • Nations of the orient moving from Buddhism to Islam

  23. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. • Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another. • Saudi Arabia moving from tribal religion, polytheism, and paganism to Islam • African nations moving from tribal religion, Animism and other faiths to Islam • Indian Nations moving from Hinduism to Islam • Nations of the orient moving from Buddhism to Islam • Christian Nations moving from Christianity to Islam. Europe

  24. The communal conversion process was a much longer and slower process. • Communal conversion is the process of an entire Nation moving from one faith to another. • Saudi Arabia moving from tribal religion, polytheism, and paganism to Islam • African nations moving from tribal religion, Animism and other faiths to Islam • Indian Nations moving from Hinduism to Islam • Nations of the orient moving from Buddhism to Islam • Christian Nations moving from Christianity to Islam. Europe Important to study communal conversion because it shows us the process of establishing Islamic community life in a new land

  25. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet.

  26. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold.

  27. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold. Note: We should learn from this.

  28. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. • Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold. • Note: We should learn from this. • After Imam Mohammed’s death many people left the community • and some even stopped practicing the deen.

  29. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. • Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold. • Note: We should learn from this. • After Imam Mohammed’s death many people left the community • and some even stopped practicing the deen. • True as well after death of Elijah Muhammad.

  30. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. • Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold. • Note: We should learn from this. • After Imam Mohammed’s death many people left the community • and some even stopped practicing the deen. • True as well after death of Elijah Muhammad. • Quarreled over succession, and leadership

  31. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. • Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold. • Note: We should learn from this. • After Imam Mohammed’s death many people left the community • and some even stopped practicing the deen. • True as well after death of Elijah Muhammad. • Quarreled over succession, and leadership • If Muslims close to the prophet, abandoned the prophet • Muhammad’s Mission what do you think some will do with • Imam WD Mohammed’s Mission.

  32. Communal conversion is not always guaranteed. There are risks factors involved with whole nations converting to a new way of life. This was even true during time of the prophet. • Ie: Muhammad died suddenly in 632, it appeared that his religion mightaltogether disappear. Many of the Bedouin tribes that had converted to Islamrenounced the new faith in the months after Muhammad's death, and hisremaining followers quarreled over who should succeed him. Though thesequarrels were never fully resolved, the community managed to find new leaderswho directed a series of campaigns to bring those who had abandoned Islam back to the fold. • Note: We should learn from this. • After Imam Mohammed’s death many people left the community • and some even stopped practicing the deen. • True as well after death of Elijah Muhammad. • Quarreled over succession, and leadership • If Muslims close to the prophet, abandoned the prophet • Muhammad’s Mission what do you think some will do with • Imam WD Mohammed’s Mission. • People say the community of Imam Mohammed will crumple • after his death

  33. The rate of conversion after the death of the Prophet and the Khalifahs were slow At the end of the Umayyad period, (661-750) less than 10% of the people in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia and Spain were Muslim. Only on the Arabian peninsula was the proportion of Muslims among the population higher than this. The Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles (15,000,000 km2), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist. [5]

  34. The rate of conversion after the death of the Prophet and the Khalifahs was slow At the end of the Umayyad period, (661-750) less than 10% of the people in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia and Spain were Muslim. Only on the Arabian peninsula was the proportion of Muslims among the population higher than this. The Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles (15,000,000 km2), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist. [5] Why was the process so slow?

  35. The rate of conversion after the death of the Prophet and the Khalifahs was slow At the end of the Umayyad period, (661-750) less than 10% of the people in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia and Spain were Muslim. Only on the Arabian peninsula was the proportion of Muslims among the population higher than this. The Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles (15,000,000 km2), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist. [5] Why was the process so slow? Do we have the right to ask?

  36. أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَثَارُوا الْأَرْضَ وَعَمَرُوهَا أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا وَجَاءتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ 30:9 (Y. Ali) Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those before them?They were superior to them in strength: they tilled the soil and populated it in greater numbers than these have done: there came to them their apostles with Clear (Signs). (Which they rejected, to their own destruction): It was not Allah who wronged them, but they wronged their own souls.

  37. Why was conversion so slow? The objective of the conquests was more than anything of a practical nature, as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian peninsula. Real Islamization therefore only came about in the subsequent centuries.[4] Note: Many Muslim who migrate from their countries , primarily do so for better resources. In our day expansion slow because those who came here from Muslim countries are concerned with wealth, resources and opportunities before Islamization.

  38. Why was conversion so slow? The objective of the conquests was more than anything of a practical nature, as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian peninsula. Real Islamization therefore only came about in the subsequent centuries.[4] Note: Many Muslim who migrate from their countries , primarily do so for better resources. In our day expansion slow because those who came here from Muslim countries are concerned with wealth, resources and opportunities before Islamization. At the outset, they were hostile to conversions because new Muslims diluted the economic and status advantages of the Arabs."[5] Note: Poor relationship with new people and converts. New converts became Muslim to access new status

  39. Why was conversion so slow? The objective of the conquests was more than anything of a practical nature, as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian peninsula. Real Islamization therefore only came about in the subsequent centuries.[4] Note: Many Muslim who migrate from their countries , primarily do so for better resources. In our day expansion slow because those who came here from Muslim countries are concerned with wealth, resources and opportunities before Islamization. At the outset, they were hostile to conversions because new Muslims diluted the economic and status advantages of the Arabs."[5] Note: Poor relationship with new people and converts. New converts became Muslim to access new status People living in regions south of the Sahara in Africa through contact with Muslim traders active in the area and Sufi Missionaries. In Africa it spread along three routes, across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through The Sudan up to Uganda and across the Red Sea and down East Africa through settlements such as Mombasa and Zanzibar. These initial conversions were of a flexible nature and only later were the societies forcibly purged of their traditional influences.[3] Note: Most interested in Business with Africans and allowed their understanding of Islam to be flexible. IWDM said they just want us to buy their products not involve us the religion

  40. أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَثَارُوا الْأَرْضَ وَعَمَرُوهَا أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا وَجَاءتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ 30:9 (Y. Ali) Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those before them?They were superior to them in strength: they tilled the soil and populated it in greater numbers than these have done: there came to them their apostles with Clear (Signs). (Which they rejected, to their own destruction): It was not Allah who wronged them, but they wronged their own souls. Note: We have seen success in our history. Islamic Empires, feats of expansion, and educational aggrandizement. But we have also seen. Poor relationships with the world community, lack of charity, lack of propagation as a priority, Oppression of women, illiteracy, blind thinking, stagnation, poverty, and terrorism,

  41. Richard Bulliet's "conversion curve" shows a relatively low rate of conversion of non-Arab subjects during the Arab centric Umayyad period of 10%, in contrast with estimates for the morepolitically, multicultural (Educational) Abbasid period which saw the Muslim population grow from approx. 40% in the mid-9th century to close to 100% by the end of the 11th century.[11] In most cases worldly and spiritual motives for conversion blended together. Moreover, conversion to Islam did not necessarily imply a complete turning from an old to a totally new life. While it entailed the acceptance of new religious beliefs and membership in a new religious community, most converts retained a deep attachment to the cultures and communities from which they came."[8] Note: Non-Arabs (off the peninsula) became more conducive to Islam when we saw an increase in Muslim involvement with Politics, Business, Dawah Culture and Education. This was more than 508 years after the prophet’s death.

  42. So, what have we learned about the communal conversion process ? • We have to protect ourselves from and not repeat the baggage associated with unproductive conversion methods in Al-Islam. • Reaction after Death of the prophet • Not trusting new leadership • Poor relationships with non Muslims • Poor relationships with new converts • Putting business and money before religion • Lack of charity • Not prioritizing Islamic education • What made us successful • Muslim involvement with • Dawah • Politics • Culture • Business (Fair Dealing) • and Education (Islamic).

  43. Be Your Own Self! By Imam W. Deen MohammedWe have to be our own self. We have to be our own selves. Being your own self means more than conforming to your own nature; it means preserving yourself; saving yourself from slavery to other people or to other ideas.The Muslim cannot be a slave to any people or to any other ideas. We are the slaves of Allah. We can’t be a slave to any ideology, to the Labor Party doctrine, to communism, to Shiite-ism or any other of the isms, Wahhabiism, or Sunniism. Once a Muslim becomes a “Sunni” rather than a Muslim first, he has taken on Sunni-ism. And Sunni-ism leads to the worship of Prophet Mohammed, over the obedience to Allah or slavery to Allah. So we are not worshipers of Prophet Mohammed. We are not worshipers of his cousin Ali, may the peace and blessings be upon him, and may the peace be upon the Imam and Khalifa Ali. We respect them in their proper places.Prophet Muhammed is the Messenger Prophet to all of us. Ali was his cousin, a wonderful friend and supporter, but no divine being. We can’t worship him. And Prophet Mohammed said “I hope my followers will not do as the Christians did when I pass, that is, go to my grave and weep and make long prayers and fall into the worship, fall into sin.” Yes.We don’t worship Prophet Mohammed. We don’t worship anybody. We worship Allah. We are the slaves of Allah. Who guided us to this — through Prophet Muhammed (peace and the blessings be upon him).It was that great prophet that guided us to this belief. He gave us this position, that we are slaves of G-d and slaves of no one else, no other ideology, no other person, and no other people.

  44. The process of establishing Islam in America

  45. Individual Conversion began in America a thousand plus years later. 1893 "Mohammad Alexander Russel Webb", one of the earliest "White American Converts", founds the "American Islamic Propaganda Movement". And on September 20th and 21st, he appeared at the First World Congress of Religions and delivered two lectures: "The spirit of Islam," and "The Influence of Islam on Social Conditions.”.

  46. Individual Conversion began in America a thousand plus years later. 1893 "Mohammad Alexander Russel Webb", one of the earliest "White American Converts", founds the "American Islamic Propaganda Movement". And on September 20th and 21st, he appeared at the First World Congress of Religions and delivered two lectures: "The spirit of Islam," and "The Influence of Islam on Social Conditions.”. Conversion in America represents great diversity

  47. Islam always been part of the American fabric. Founding fathers were Knowledgeable of Al-Islam In 1776, John Adams published "Thoughts on Government," in which he praises the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a "sober inquirer after truth" alongside Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, and other thinkers.

  48. Islam always been part of the American fabric. Founding fathers were Knowledgeable of Al-Islam In 1776, John Adams published "Thoughts on Government," in which he praises the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a "sober inquirer after truth" alongside Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, and other thinkers. When Benjamin Franklin helped establish a non-denominational religious meeting house in Philadelphia, he emphasized its non-sectarian nature by stating that "even if the Mufti of Constantinople were to send a missionary to preach Mohammedanism to us, he would find a pulpit at his service".[28] Franklin also wrote an anti-slavery parody piece claiming to be translation of the response of a government official at Algiers to a 17th-century petition to banish slavery there; the piece develops the theme that Europeans are specially suited for enslavement on cultural and religious grounds, and that there would be practical problems with abolishing slavery in North Africa; this satirizes similar arguments that were then made about the enslavement of Blacks in North America.[29]

  49. Islam always been part of the American fabric. Founding fathers were Knowledgeable of Al-Islam In 1776, John Adams published "Thoughts on Government," in which he praises the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a "sober inquirer after truth" alongside Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, and other thinkers. When Benjamin Franklin helped establish a non-denominational religious meeting house in Philadelphia, he emphasized its non-sectarian nature by stating that "even if the Mufti of Constantinople were to send a missionary to preach Mohammedanism to us, he would find a pulpit at his service".[28] Franklin also wrote an anti-slavery parody piece claiming to be translation of the response of a government official at Algiers to a 17th-century petition to banish slavery there; the piece develops the theme that Europeans are specially suited for enslavement on cultural and religious grounds, and that there would be practical problems with abolishing slavery in North Africa; this satirizes similar arguments that were then made about the enslavement of Blacks in North America.[29] Thomas Jeffersondefended religious freedom in America including those of Muslims. Jefferson explicitly mentioned Muslims when writing about the movement for religious freedom in Virginia. In his autobiography Jefferson wrote "[When] the [Virginia] bill for establishing religious freedom... was finally passed,... a singular proposition proved that its protection of opinion was meant to be universal. Where the preamble declares that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed, by inserting the word 'Jesus Christ,' so that it should read 'a departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion.' The insertion was rejected by a great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend within the mantle of its protection the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mahometan, the Hindoo and infidel of every denomination."[38]While President,Jefferson also participated in an iftar with the Ambassador of Tunisia in 1809.[39]

  50. Conversion of the African American and indigenous American. Much more specific. Slavery Moorish science temple Marcus Garvey Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood Nation of Islam Dar Al-Islam