Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation . Life in the New Nation 1783-1850. Ch 7, Section 1 Cultural Social, and Religious Life. In the early 1800s, the Culture, religion, and social practices of Americans adapted to meet the challenges of a new and growing nation.
Ch 7, Section 1 Cultural Social, and Religious Life In the early 1800s, the Culture, religion, and social practices of Americans adapted to meet the challenges of a new and growing nation.
Chapter 7, Section 1Cultural Advancement
American Scholars and Artists
American Scholars and Artists Mercy Otis Warren- She wrote a book titled History of the American Revolution and urged women to get involved with politics and educate themselves in addition to their jobs around the home. “It may be a mistake, that man, in a state of nature, is more disposed to cruelty than courtesy.”
American Scholars and Artists Benjamin Rush- He was a scientist, doctor and revolutionary, and was one of the first people to suggest that illnesses were physical issues. At that time, it was common belief that illness was caused by Satan.
American Scholars and Artists Benjamin Banneker- He was a self-educated writer, inventor, mathematician, and astronomer. He mapped out the new capital, Washington, D.C. and published the first almanac tracking the motions of the sun, moon, and stars.
American Scholars and Artists Charles Willson Peale- He was an artist who painted more than 1,000 portraits, a soldier who fought in the Revolution, a representative in the Pennsylvania legislature, an inventor, and a scientist. He founded the first museum that made art enjoyable for everyone, not just the wealthy.
American Scholars and Artists Phillis Wheatley- She was a slave, whose owners recognized her intelligence and taught her to read and write. She went on to write many popular poems, especially one dedicated to George Washington.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Cultural Advancement Education By: Matt S.
Education Americans saw children's education as a means of developing a rich and uniquely american culture In 1783 webster wrote “The American Spelling Book” Webster also called for establishment of standards for a national language In response to that he then compiled the first major dictionary of american english, The American Dictionary of the English Language.
Many state constitutions required free public education for all children but few state governments actually provided free education in the early years Academies and private high schools often filled the gap All of this leads to the modern day public education
Ch 7-1, Republican Virtues Brantley Gilbert Americans hoped to develop unique character by promoting certain values Virtues that Americans needed to govern themselves were called “Republican Values” Included self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony, and sacrifice for the good of the community Wanted women (teachers, mothers, etc.) to set the standard in order to teach the men
Schools and Universities began teaching Republican Values to females Provided more opportunities for women to receive formal educations Public still believed that women only played a supporting role; however, Americans began to consider the importance of women in the new nation.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes Population Growth by: Mollie Nesaw
Population Growth In 1780 2.7 million people lived in the original 13 states. In 1830 12 million people lived in 24 states. The population doubled every 20 years.
Population Growth Continued 90% of the population growth came from the amount of children born. The average American woman had 5 children. The median age in America was 17 and the majority of the population was 16 and under.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes Mobility - CaitieBernadowski
Chapter 7, Section 1- Social Changes:Mobility The expanding population led to crowding, especially along the Atlantic coast. Americans solved this problem by moving away from crowded areas. The U.S. was (and still is) a mobile society, one in which people move from place to place.
New Mobility had Two Major Effects: Americans had great opportunities to improve their lives. Many moved west and started new societies. Enslaved Americans however, did not benefit from the mobile society.
People who moved often lived among strangers. Thus they had to learn new skills and make up new rules for getting along with others. ~ One social skill was the ability to judge strangers. Many people were likely to question another social position. Questioning a position usually led to violence.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes New Rules for Courtship and Marriage By: Sarah Tucker
New rules for courtship and marriage
Women had a choice in who they would be married to, which was one of the only freedoms that women had during this time period They found guidance in books when looking for characteristics for potential mates One of the most famous books of the times was the 1794 novel Charlotte Temple
Continued… The novel Charlotte Temple told a story of a military man that seemed to be respectable, but ended up leaving his wife penniless and pregnant. Women became increasingly cautious when it came to marriage, and they saw marriage as a matter of survival since women did not have a lot of freedoms and depended on their husbands.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Religious Renewal The Second Great Awakening By: Chase Hamilton
The Second Great Awakening
It took place in the early 1800’s It was a powerful religious movement. It began in the backcountry of Kentucky and Tennessee It was an evangelical movement that affected Protestant Christians. It was an revival( people who are brought back to a religious lifestyle).
Continued… Women took a slightly important role in this and it increased their power but it did this indirectly. The women got to choose their church ministers and this offered them a chance to connect with others. They might work together to help spread the Christian religion.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Religious Renewal New Denominations Nick M. Cody Thomas
New Religious Denominations A denomination is a religious subgroup generally Christianity Baptists are a subgroup of Christianity and got their name from how a member of their church joins it, by being baptized. Baptists believe that people should be baptized when the fully understand the religion so people are generally baptized when older. By 1850 became 2nd largest denomination.
Continued Methodism grew out of the beliefs of a British minister John Wesley. Largest denomination by 1850. Focused on relationship with God rather than the confusing religious doctrines that other religions focused on. Preachers were generally common folk.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Religious Renewal African American Worship By Jeremy Debnam
African American Worship
Like white Americans, great numbers of African Americans turned to evangelical religion. As African Americans joined Christian churches, black and white traditions blended together. For instance, both black and white Christians sang spirituals, but African American singers, however, focused on themes that had a double meaning.
African American Worship (contd) African Americans sometimes felt unwelcome in white-dominated churches. In 1787, white worshippers at St. George Methodist Church in Philadelphia asked the African Americans in the congregation to leave the main floor and sit up in the gallery. They refused. Under the leadership of Richard Allen, they left and started a new church of their own.
African American Worship (contd) African Americans in other cities soon followed Allen’s example and started their own churches. Sixteen congregations joined in 1816 to form the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME). Members elected Allen as their first bishop and by 1831, the AME Church included 86 churches with about 8,000 members.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Trails to the West In the early years of the republic, many people traveled west over the Appalachians to settle in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Later, settlers would cross the continent to the Great Salt Lake and Pacific Coast.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Crossing the Appalachians John Bennett
Crossing the Appalachians U.S. needed space to expand. They were traveling because they wanted a better future and to escape the overcrowding along the Atlantic Coast.
Crossing the Appalachians Continued They were going to the area west of the Appalachians Mountains known as trans-Appalachian. Traveled several main roads over the Appalachians Traveled through east coast cities such as Cumberland road to the Cumberland gap.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Crossing the Appalachians Settling the Wilderness Ryley Shuler
Chapter 7 Section 2 – Crossing the Appalachians Settling The Wilderness The Transylvania Company employed Daniel Boone, who cut the wilderness road through the Cumberland Gap, this road became the main route to Trans-Appalachia. In 1792 75,000 pioneers settled in Kentucky which became the official 15th state
Settlers usually moved as families Newcomers faced many problems such as clearing trees and underbrush, planting corn and other crops, and building a log cabin 98,000 slaves moved west with owners The Northwest Ordinance forbid slavery north of Ohio
Crossing the Appalachians
Forcing Native Americans West By Taylor Meador
American settlers wanted to move west in order to find open land, independence, and prosperity, so they crossed over the Appalachian Mountains to find the new land.
They didn’t want Indian competition in this new land, so the government made deals with the Indian chiefs to get them to move.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Crossing the Appalachians Forcing Native Americans West
The Pinckney Treaty Named after Thomas Pinckney, an American diplomat. The treaty had three points The southern boundary of the United States was set at 31o N latitude, leaving Florida firmly in Spanish hands. United States citizens would be allowed free use of the Mississippi river through Spanish territory Spain and the United States agreed to control the Native Americans living within their borders and to prevent them from attacking each other’s territory
War hero of 1812 He wrote to President Monroe, “that the possession of Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished.” He conquered eastern Florida for America
Ch 7, Section 2 - Expanding Into Florida The Seminole Wars Nicole-Anne Keyton
March 1818 – General Andrew Jackson led 2,000 men across the Florida border in order to stop the Spanish attacks made on Americans. American troops burned Seminole villages, captured Spanish towns, and claimed possession of the entire western part of the Floridas. Because of this, Congress threatened to condemn Jackson for his actions. Late 1818 – John Adams accused the Spanish of break the Pinckney Treaty – which states that Spain and the US agree to control Native Americans living within their borders – by failing to control Seminoles. The Spanish then decided to get something for the land they lost. 1819 – Adam-Onìs Treaty: Spain agreed to give up Florida to US; also fixes boundary between Louisiana Purchase and western Spanish territory. Chapter 7, Section 2: Expanding Into Florida – The Seminole Wars
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific The Oregon Country Victoria Gambriel
The Oregon Country
-Stretched from northern California to the border of Alaska. -There were magnificent mountains, endless forests, and fertile valleys
The Oregon Country Native American groups had lived in the Oregon Country, and Yankee merchants traded with them. In the early 1800s four nations- United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spain-claimed right to Oregon Country.
The Oregon Country The treaty called The Convention of 1818 was between the U.S. and Great Britain for joint occupation. In the Adams-Onís treaty, Spain and Russia gave up claims. Churches sent missionaries to convert Indians to Christianity.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific Overland Travelers Katie Baldacci
Overland Travelers Organized wagon trains carried masses of migrants to the west. Wagon trains traveled along the Oregon Trail. Typical family paid between $500-1000
Reasons for travel To obtain land which could be settled and farmed. Or bought and sold at a profit. To trade goods. By 1845 more than 5,000 Americans had migrated to the Oregon Country.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific Mormon Migrations Ben Chick
Migration Mormons went many different places New York-Ohio-Missouri-Illinois-Great Salt Lake They fled each place because of religious harassment
Leaders Smith was original leader but got killed The new leader was Brigham Young Young moved Mormons to Great Salt Lake By 1860 there was over 30,000 in Salt Lake and other towns in Utah territory
What They Did Prospered as farmers and traders Sold supplies to pioneers heading towards Oregon and California
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific Gold Rush Dalton Ruch
California Gold Rush California is where the gold rush began! The population grew over 500% in a single year An expensive Mineral that everyone wanted to get their hands on
then in 1849 all the people to hear about this decided to migrate out to Cali (Miner 49'ers) John San Francisco was first man to discover that there was gold in Cali in 1848 = There was also slaves during the Cali gold rush When all the gold was "gone" the place was abandoned and ghost towns popped up everywhere 10% of miners were asian
Ch 7, Section 3 –The Great Plains and Southwest
Chapter 7 Section 3 Plains Indians
Impact of the Horse The Spanish brought horses to their colonies in Northern Mexico in the 1500’s Native Americans acquired horses through trade and raids on Spanish settlement.
By the mid 1700’s they spread to North to Missouri Valley, the Dakotas, and Oregon Country. Horses carried possessions and followed buffalo for hunting. Buffalo also became important.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Plains Indians New Nations and New Settlers The Decline of Villages 25893
The Crow already lived on the plains The Cheyenne, Sioux, Comanche, and Blackfeet migrated to the plains after horses made it easier to live on the move Native American groups moved to the plains for buffalo and to avoid the westward expanding white settlers
7-3 New Nations and New Settlers
7-3 The Decline of Villages Warrior cultures grew and Indians joined war parties and rode into battle to move up in their tribes Warfare, like the buffalo hunt, became a way of life Nomadic Indians had destructive raids on settled groups The Comanche drove the Apache and Navajos to New Mexico and by the early 1800s they controlled the southern plains Sioux, in alliance with Arapaho and Cheyenne, controlled northern plains Agricultural native groups suffered greatly The Mandan tribe was hit hard by European diseases (smallpox) and their population decreases from 10,000 to 2,000 and then down to hundreds
Ch 7, Section 3 – Hispanic North America Spanish Colonies Tim Jackson
Hispanic North America
-With the Pueblo Revolt, Spain lost commitment to settling North America -Hostile Indians made Spain presence difficult to maintain -Only small towns located around Texas and along the Rio Grande Spain On Decline
Hispanic North America Settlement Recovery Spain decided to build missions Started by Father Junipero Serra Started north of San Diego and went to San Francisco They created an uneasy alliance with Comanche and Navajo Indians Used Indians for labor, paid them back in food Settlements began in New Mexico and settled in large settlements for protection against Native Americans
Ch 7, Section 3 – Hispanic North America Effects of Mexican Independence\ Amy Smith
Chapter 7, Section 3 – Hispanic North America Effects of Mexican Independence Started demands for self-government and a few local uprisings Political reforms brought greater democracy Independent citizens were now free to elect representatives to the new government in Mexico City.
California, New Mexico, and Texas benefitted from being part of an independent Mexico. However, new economic policies widened the gap between the rich and the poor in these northern territories.
New Mexico’s closeness to the U.S. caused more trade between the two, which meant that they already had a good relationship before the territory became part of the U.S. Because of this increased trade, American goods nearly replaced New Mexico’s trade with Mexico.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for Independence The start of the Colony Samantha Thompson
Chapter 7, section 3- Texas fights for Independence
The start of the Colony
Stephen Austin led American settlers to Texas The settlers received permission from the Mexican government to create a colony of several hundred families in Texas The Mexican policy encouraged immigration so they were okay with it
The colony grew majorly so Mexico passed a law prohibiting further American settlement and outlawed importation of slaves. By 1835, more than thirty thousand Americans lived in Texas Americans demanded more political control, specifically self government so that the could import slaves again In October of 1835 independence-minded settlers clashed with Mexican troops, beginning Texas war for independence.
Texas Fights for Independence. Problems Arise }:-(
Rickey Shelton A3
Problems Arise. The Mexican policy encouraged immigration, by 1830 about 7,000 Americans lived in Texas. By 1835 around 30,000 Americans lived in Texas. Mexico Passes law that prohibits American settlement.
Problems Arise (cont’d) Americans demanded political control. Americans wanted slavery under Mexican law they argued that cotton couldn’t be grown profitably. Americans wanted the same rights from, gov’t that was possessed in the U.S. Caused spark in Texas war for independence.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for Independence Texas War of Independence Battle of the Alamo Dakota Townsend
Battle of the Alamo 1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took power of Mexico and made himself dictator. Amer. and Mex. wanted self-gov’t. but Santa Anna said NO. October 1835 Texans began war for independence.
Dictator led thousands of men to the Alamo to stop the rebellion. Texans at Alamo had less than 200 men. Texan leaders were William Travis and James Bowie Battle lasted 13 days. Texans caused 4000 Mexican casualties.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for Independence Texas War of Independence Outcomes UNKNOWN