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Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation

Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation. Section 2. Learning Targets. I can describe the spirit of improvement in American society during the early 1800s, including women’s role in promoting virtue.

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Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation

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  1. Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation Section 2

  2. Learning Targets • I can describe the spirit of improvement in American society during the early 1800s, including women’s role in promoting virtue. • I can show how the Industrial Revolution affected the nation’s economy through inventions such as the cotton gin. • I can provide example of the advances that produced “revolutions” in transporting and communication.

  3. The Spirit of Improvement • One way to improve life was through education • Mercy Otis Warren- wrote History of the American Revolution, which encouraged women to take up scholarly interests but to balance them with their domestic duties • Benjamin Rush- Doctor and scientist. Rush suggested mental illness was often a result of physical disease instead of the devil • Charles Wilson Peale- Created the 1st museum. Housed art and science, which was thought as luxury

  4. Education • Noah Webster- wanted better education for all, not just the prosperous (rich) • Webster went on to create the first major dictionary in the United States. He also created The American Spelling Book. • State constitutions required free education for all but that was hardly the case as many students went to academies/private schools • Schools had to teach Republican Virtues- things needed to govern yourself including, sacrificing individual needs for the good of the community, self-reliance, industry and frugality

  5. The Role of Women • The idea of showing the standard of republican virtues was then passed on to women. • Women would have an influence on the men who would rule, and vote in our nation. • To learn these virtues women would need to be allowed to attend school • Many schools created “female departments” for girls to attend

  6. Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution- Increasing production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals. • Several British inventions sparked this idea to help the textile or cloth-weaving industry • James Watt created the steam engine. It used the force from steam to create energy. • This invention was kept secret by the British. Anyone who knew about the design was not allowed to emigrate, or move from the country.

  7. The Industrial Revolution • Samuel Slater- Slater emigrated to the US from GB and replicated the steam engine. By the time he died he was worth a million $. • The steam engine spread quickly in the New England region of the US • Robert Fulton- Credited with creating the steam boat – it used a steam engine to power the boat. • It could travel against the current

  8. Eli Whitney • Eli Whitney- Gun maker who credited with the idea of Interchangeable Parts (all parts are made to an exact standard) • During the late 1700’s-early 1800’s all parts were individually made • Whitney also created the cotton gin (a machine that separated seeds from cotton) • In 1 day a person could clean 1,000 lbs of cotton with the gin and only 1 lb without it

  9. Cotton Gin Effects • Profit per lb of cotton skyrocketed and the amount planted rose • It became the staple (main) crop for many southern planters • Planters looked for new land to grow cotton and settled in AL, MS, LA and TX • Slavery rose in the south to keep up with the large amounts of cotton being grown

  10. Transportation Revolution • Canals or artificial (man made) waterways were created to help with trade and transportation • The most famous canal was the Erie Canal which connected New York to Lake Erie • Roads were created to help with travel. • They were built by private individuals who would charge a toll, or a fee, to use the road. • An attendant would wait, collect the toll and then turn a pike, or a bar, that blocked the road- these roads were called turnpikes • The Cumberland Road (national built road using gravel and stone from Maryland to Ohio) was built by the government • Railroads were more durable and efficient.

  11. Communication • Post Offices went from 75 in 1790 to 8,450 in 1830. • This made it easier to communicate with people in distant places • This also helped create a network of information by delivering newspapers, books and magazines.

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