1 / 23

# Chapter 9

Chapter 9. Rotation of Rigid Bodies. Goals for Chapter 9. To describe rotation in terms of angular coordinate, angular velocity, and angular acceleration To analyze rotation with constant angular acceleration

Télécharger la présentation

## Chapter 9

E N D

### Presentation Transcript

1. Chapter 9 Rotation of Rigid Bodies

2. Goals for Chapter 9 • To describe rotation in terms of angular coordinate, angular velocity, and angular acceleration • To analyze rotation with constant angular acceleration • To relate rotation to the linear velocity and linear acceleration of a point on a body • To understand moment of inertia and how it relates to rotational kinetic energy • To calculate moment of inertia

3. Introduction • A wind turbine, a CD, a ceiling fan, and a Ferris wheel all involve rotating rigid objects. • Real-world rotations can be very complicated because of stretching and twisting of the rotating body. But for now we’ll assume that the rotating body is perfectly rigid.

4. Angular coordinate • A car’s speedometer needle rotates about a fixed axis, as shown at the right. • The angle  that the needle makes with the +x-axis is a coordinate for rotation.

5. Units of angles • An angle in radians is  = s/r, as shown in the figure. • One complete revolution is 360° = 2π radians.

6. Angular velocity • The angular displacement of a body is  = 2 – 1. • The average angular velocity of a body is av-z = /t. • The subscript z means that the rotation is about the z-axis. • The instantaneous angular velocity is z = d/dt. • A counterclockwise rotation is positive; a clockwise rotation is negative.

7. Calculating angular velocity • We first investigate a flywheel. • Follow Example 9.1.

8. Angular velocity is a vector • Angular velocity is defined as a vector whose direction is given by the right-hand rule shown in Figure 9.5 below.

9. Angular acceleration • The average angular acceleration is av-z = z/t. • The instantaneous angular acceleration is z = dz/dt = d2/dt2. • Follow Example 9.2.

10. Angular acceleration as a vector • For a fixed rotation axis, the angular acceleration and angular velocity vectors both lie along that axis.

11. Rotation with constant angular acceleration • The rotational formulas have the same form as the straight-line formulas, as shown in Table 9.1 below.

12. Rotation of a Blu-ray disc • A Blu-ray disc is coming to rest after being played. • Follow Example 9.3 using Figure 9.8 as shown at the right.

13. Relating linear and angular kinematics • For a point a distance r from the axis of rotation: its linear speed is v = r its tangential acceleration is atan = r its centripetal (radial) acceleration is arad = v2/r = r

14. An athlete throwing a discus • Follow Example 9.4 and Figure 9.12.

15. Designing a propeller • Follow Example 9.5 and Figure 9.13.

16. Rotational kinetic energy • The moment of inertia of a set of particles is • I = m1r12 + m2r22 + … = miri2 • The rotational kinetic energy of a rigid body having a moment of inertia I is K = 1/2 I2. • Follow Example 9.6 using Figure 9.15 below.

17. Moments of inertia of some common bodies • Table 9.2 gives the moments of inertia of various bodies.

18. An unwinding cable • Follow Problem-Solving Strategy 9.1. • Follow Example 9.7.

19. More on an unwinding cable • Follow Example 9.8 using Figure 9.17 below.

20. Gravitational potential energy of an extended body • The gravitational potential energy of an extended body is the same as if all the mass were concentrated at its center of mass: Ugrav = Mgycm.

21. The parallel-axis theorem • The parallel-axis theorem is: IP = Icm + Md2. • Follow Example 9.9 using Figure 9.20 below.

22. Moment of inertia of a hollow or solid cylinder • Follow Example 9.10 using Figure 9.22.

23. Moment of inertia of a uniform solid sphere • Follow Example 9.11 using Figure 9.23.

More Related