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Principles of Persuasion

Principles of Persuasion.

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Principles of Persuasion

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  1. Principles of Persuasion Please note that these slides are based upon the textbook, Strategies for Engineering Communication, by Steve Whitmore, Susan Stevenson, and Margaret Hope (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002, ISBN 0-471-12817-1). The original source for some of the material in these slides is not provided in this presentation. Full citations for that material may be found in the textbook. Steve Whitmore September 2005 Principles of Persuasion

  2. Learning Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to write more persuasively by following these methods: • Analyzing audience and purpose • Attending to tone and connotation • Utilizing persuasive appeals • Employing inclusive language Principles of Persuasion

  3. Purposes • Persuasive (reports, proposals, resumes) • Informative (reports, design specs, scientific articles) • Instructional (user’s and technical manuals, procedures) • Regulatory (standards, regulations, codes) • Heuristic (functional specs, brainstorming, free-writing) • Imaginative (newsletters, promotional literature) Principles of Persuasion

  4. Audience Analysis • Expertise (high, moderate, low, mixed) • Needs/Fears/Values (money, environs, politics, people) • Power (subordinate, peer, supervisor) Also consider the ethics of the situation (honesty vs. half-truths/distortions) Principles of Persuasion

  5. Local Analysis • What is the purpose of the REM 801 article synthesis? • What are the characteristics of the audience for your REM 801 article synthesis? Principles of Persuasion

  6. Audience Profile of Academic Assessors* *The table on this page and the next one has been excerpted from L. Poulson and M. Wallace, 2004, Learning to Read Critically in Teaching and Learning, Sage Publications, London. Principles of Persuasion

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  8. Connotation and Persuasion Connotations are contextual meanings Sir/Ma’am Officer Constable Pig Cop Mountie Connotation Continuum Principles of Persuasion

  9. Langley RCMP have with­drawn a $75 ticket issued to a 12-year-old boy for illegally riding his bicycle on the side-walk. But 12-year-old Jimmy Livingstone's victory was bittersweet. The ticket was withdrawn only after his mother marched him down to the Langley RCMP detachment to apologize for swearing at the officer. “That part wasn't mentioned to us,” Dan Livingstone, the boy's step-father, said Friday. “He's going to pay for his wrongdoings.” The boy's mother, Christine Living-stone, was originally furious after her son was issued the ticket Wednesday evening for riding on the sidewalk in Langley, where he was visiting his natural father. The boy had told his mother traffic forced him onto the sidewalk at 204th and Douglas Crescent and the officer issuing the ticket wouldn't listen to reason. However, Sgt. Wayne Treleaven — who heads the detachment's traffic detail — said the officer indicated Thursday night he had ticketed the boy only after he refused to get off his bike and started swearing at him. “He called him a f . . . pig,” Treleaven said. “The ticket was the harshest means the policeman had to deal with the youth.” The ticket was then withdrawn because of the boy's age. -- Brian Morton, Vancouver Sun (September, 1992) Connotation and Persuasion Principles of Persuasion

  10. Connotation and Persuasion Chimney Stack Flue Smokestack Atmospheric Emission Dispersion System (AEDS) Connotation Continuum Principles of Persuasion

  11. Example Connotation Problem From: Angry User Date: Tuesday, August 29, 1995 4:01 PM To: General Discussion Subject: What! No Jewel Case! C'mon Microsoft! What kinda cheesy decision was that? I got the Win95 Upgrade and Plus! pak, and both had el cheapo cardboard sleeves for their respective CD's. What possessed you? Who came up with that hare-brained stunt?! Doesn't any corporate butthead up there give a hot damn about your users? $144 calls for something more secure than a couple of cardboard sleeves! Did your jewel case supplier suddenly run out? Am I the only one that's pissed off over this!? I find that hard to believe... Principles of Persuasion

  12. Example Connotation Problem From: Microsoft Representative Date: Sunday, September 03, 1995 7:57 AM To: General Discussion Subject: RE: What! No Jewel Case! Hi John, While I can certainly understand your position on this, I am going to have to ask you to refrain from using profanity on the forum. Thanks. Microsoft Representative MS PSS Principles of Persuasion

  13. Connotation Problem? From: Steve_Whitmore Date: Monday, September 04, 1995 12:54 AM To: General Discussion Subject: Piss off, eh! ;-) Hi Bill & John, Sometimes when people are frustrated, profanity is the only way for them to vent their feelings. Let's not tun MSN into another AOL!! There they kick people off the net because they get angry. That's BS. And by the way, John had a good point -- it was kinda cheesy for MS to use the cardboard covers. (Although John, I gotta say that you haven't really lived until you've dealt with COREL Corp. -- they just stuff the CDs between the pages of the manuals, and then you get to clean the ink off the CDs. Lotsa fun. So I can't say I'm very upset about the cardboard covers.) Chill out, both of you, eh. Regards, Steve W. Principles of Persuasion

  14. Persuasive Appeals Classical Appeals to the Audience • Appeal to logic or reason (Logos) • Appeal to emotions (Pathos) • Appeal to values/Appeal from your credibility (Ethos) Principles of Persuasion

  15. Logos: The Critical Stance in Persuasion* *The table on this page and the following two has been excerpted from L. Poulson and M Wallace, 2004, Learning to Read Critically in Teaching and Learning, Sage Publications, London. Principles of Persuasion

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  18. Pathos Aims to Move (E-motion) • Rarely used in academic or professional writing • Can be a very powerful tool in motivational speeches: Winston Churchill • Also used as a powerful public relations tool: Harp Seal Pup Clearcuts in Clayoquot Sound Principles of Persuasion

  19. Principles of Ethos • Generally implied in academic or professional writing • Emphasizes credibility of writer (e.g., age, expertise, accomplishments, standing in community, etc.) • Quality of evidence, logical argument, speaking with respect, clarity of writing, referencing conventions • Can be used (sometimes ineptly) by citation of well-known authorities • Key point is to generate identification with the audience through use of shared metaphors, conventions, language, images, ideas, and methods • Identification may be impossible to achieve if the audience holds a set of values differing greatly from that of the writer (e.g., pro-life vs. pro-choice) Principles of Persuasion

  20. Example of Identification/Appeals Date: Mon, 30 Sep 1996 13:56:06 -0700 To: sfufa-forum@sfu.ca, apsa-forum@sfu.ca From: Subject: Let's cool it! Forgive an old man for not keeping his mouth shut when he sees the institution to which he has devoted the better part of his life deteriorate into internal feuding at a time when unity among those labouring within it is more important than ever in the light of external threats. It appears that some individual members of APSA as well as some individual members of SFUFA have taken offence to comments and suggestions of other individuals expressed in these fora. Offence and insult, like beauty, rests in the eyes of the beholder, so I shall refrain from passing judgment on the legitimacy of the feelings generated. ("De gustibus non disputandum."). However, I should like to remind everybody, that the free, open, and public expression of opinion is of fundamental value in our society and even more so in an institution such as a university. This freedom carries a price tag, namely that from time to time we shall be exposed to opinions that either in form or in substance may offend some of us or even on occasion most of us. Principles of Persuasion

  21. Example Continued The appropriate defence in such a situation is best exemplified by a German proverb: "Was von mir ein Esel spricht, das acht ich nicht." Freely translated that means: "I am not going to dignify silly talk about me by paying any attention to it.“ To try to impose censorship is definitely NOT an acceptable response. Finally let us remember that members of APSA as well as of SFUFA are serving a common goal and that the behaviour of any individuals in either group that may on occasion displease us is no reason to interfere with our general appreciation of each others role, let alone become a stumbling block to full cooperation in the pursuit of these common goals. So, lets cool those flames and not fan them further! Cheers to all of you including offenders and offended! Principles of Persuasion

  22. Inclusive Language • Why use inclusive language? • Practical – Most journals as well as academic departments require that you do so. If you want to be published or read you must conform to current practices. • Ethical – Women have been denied access to positions of professional authority for centuries. Contemporary western values and institutions require that this change. • Persuasive – As more women achieve positions of professional authority, you risk being unpersuasive if you employ generic language. • Cognitive – Some studies suggest that women retain information better when written using inclusive language rather than using generic language. The difference for men is minimal. Principles of Persuasion

  23. Generic Language He Businessman Chairman Foreman Husband, Wife Inclusive Language Inclusive Language  He or she, S/he, They  Entrepreneur  Chair  Supervisor  Spouse Principles of Persuasion

  24. Guidelines for Inclusive Language • Avoid nouns that imply gender (chairman chair) • Avoid gendered nouns with negative connotations (women’s libber feminist, girls  women) • Avoid gender stereotyping (“The nurses and their husbands . . . .”, “The engineers and their wives . . . .”) • Use neutral or dual pronouns • Switch to the plural • Use both pronouns (he or she) • Combine pronouns (s/he) • Omit pronoun or replace with a definite article (the) • Alternate pronouns throughout a document • Use third-person plural as the singular (they, them, their) Principles of Persuasion

  25. Original For example, a user selects “Compile” in order to collect timing signals. Later, he selects “Analyze” to produce a series of graphs for the compiled timing data. Revising Generic Language Revised For example, users select “Compile” in order to collect timing signals. Later, they select “Analyze” to produce a series of graphs for the compiled timing data. Principles of Persuasion

  26. Conclusion Reflections: How will you apply the principles of persuasion to your REM 801 article review? Principles of Persuasion

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