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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7

    The Great Migration and the Push for Democracy
  2. What is chapter 7 all about? Between 1815 – 1850 lots of people from Britain came to BNA This is known as “The Great Migration” This migration changed BNA. Before the 1840 most of UC and LC was Canadien. After 1850, most people were British. Leaders in UC, LC and in Nova Scotia wanted an end to Britain's ruling in BNA BNA wanted a democratic government so they could have more control over what happened in BNA
  3. What triggered the Great Migration? Poverty in Britain Left for economic reasons UNEMPLOYMENT: Many lost jobs b/c of the Industrial revolution- machines took over many jobs of the people Many lost farms The end of the Napoleonic Wars meant an economic slowdown FAMINE Opportunities in the Colonies BNA meant a place for people to start over EMIGRATION: Br. encouraged people to move as a way to end its economic troubles and encourage loyalty to Britain in the colonies
  4. What impacts did this migration have? More farms Settlers cleared land for farms More British people There was a huge increase in the population in BNA- especially in Upper Canada In Upper Canada- In Lower Canada 1830 - about 180,000 - 1830- about 450,000 1840 - about 400,000 - 1840- about 650,000 1850- about 1 million - 1850- about 850,000
  5. Immigrant Ships Diseases on the ships: many did not survive the voyage Overwhelming demand: Too many people were put onto the ships or were housed in cargo areas People brought food (potatoes, oatmeal and salt pork and beef) and were expected to cook their own meals Trips that were to take 5-6 weeks may be delayed, taking 10-11 weeks due to bad weather People thought that cholera was deliberately sent by Britain to kill off and demoralize the Canadiens The government set up a quarantine at Grosse Ile about 50 km from Quebec. All immigrants had to report there upon arrival and sick ones were forced to stay until well. Many Irish orphans at Grosse Ile were adopted by Canadien families
  6. Grosse Ile Grosse-Ile is an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
  7. Grosse Ile Grosse-Ile is connected to the Great Migration as a place of hope and tragedy. Why? Place of hope: it was a place that the ill could recover from disease Place of tragedy: Many ill died here. Leaving many orphans.
  8. Colonial vs Democratic Colonial Government Democratic Government
  9. Who has the power? In British North America? In a Democracy? Britain holds the power BNA had colonial government Britain appointed people who made the decisions including a governor and councils Each colony also had an elected assembly that advised the governor and council but has no real power Voters elect people who have the power to make decisions Therefore, voters have power In BNA reformers wanted the people who lived in the colonies to have the power Wanted elected assemblies to control councils, not governors Wanted councils, not governors to have control over decisions
  10. The Reformers- Who are they? The reformers wanted to change the rules and arrangements in BNA so that they would have the authority to make the decisions that affected their lives
  11. Perspectives on Democracy Use page 210-211 of the text to complete the speech bubbles of Thomas Jefferson, John Stuart Mill and Alexis de Tocqueville. Add “because” to the end of each statement and an explanation. Thomas Jefferson John Stuart Mill Alexis de Tocqueville “The majority must “People who disagree with the “Can we trust voters to stay make the rules because…” majority need protection because…” informed because…”
  12. The Rebellions of 1837 and 1838
  13. Lower Canada Power struggle between council (chosen by govenor) & elected assembly (chosen by voters) Council controlled by English, protestants “Chateau clique” – group of wealthy English merchants Assembly controlled by French, catholics “Parti-Canadien”, “Parti-Patriote” – supported by Canadiens 3 Canadiens shot by British soldiers during fight between Canadiens & English voters Cholera Epidemic: killed almost 5 thousand people Famine: 4 years of crop failures result in starvation of farmers (mostly Canadiens)
  14. Upper Canada Similar power struggle between council & assembly Council controlled by English “Family Compact” – group of wealthy English Canadian famillies Assembly controlled by American settlers “Reform party” – not supported by British loyalists 1836: Governor (appointed by Britain) makes sure the Reform party does not win majority of seats in assembly Crop failures create starvation
  15. Comparison of Upper & Lower Canada Similarites Differences British governors Councils appointed by governor Controlled by small group of famillies Reformers were powerful in assemblies Affected by crop failures Lower Canada Reformers were Canadien (French) Reformers controlled the assembly Canadien- British power struggle Cholera epidemic Upper Canada Reformers were American settlers Reformers could not control the assembly because of Governor interference
  16. Who were the Reformers? Opponents of colonial government Wanted to place power in hands of those elected (by voters) not those appointed (by Britain) Louis-Joseph Papineau Represented Canadien population governed by English-speaking minority William Lyon Mackenzie Represented English speaking people governed by Britain Wanted a republic (new government) Joseph Howe Represented English speaking people governed by Britain Wanted a democratic government with ties to Britain
  17. Chain of Events March 1837 Britain rejects a petition for reforms prepared by the Parti-Patriote, which represents Canadien needs and interests Papineau organizes rallies against the government October 1837 Britain moves troops into Lower Canada November 1837 The government tries to arrest Papineau and other Patriote leaders The Patriotes fight British troops The British troops defeat the Patriotes, and burn Canadien settlements
  18. Chain of Events December 1837 Papineau and other Patriote leaders flee to the United States British troops continue to loot & burn Canadien settlements After hearing about rebellions in Lower Canada, Mackenzie and his followers attack York (Toronto) The government arms volunteers in Upper Canada to fight Mackenzie Mackenzie flees to the United States 1838 Patriotes in The United States organize another rebellion but are defeated British volunteers continue to attack Canadien settlements Mackenzie continues to organize raids on Upper Canada from the United States Papineau & Mackenzie did not return to Canada till 1844/1849 after they were granted amnesty (pardon) by the Biritish government
  19. The Durham Report Lord Durham is appointed Governor with the job of finding out why the rebellions are happening. He made three recommendations: 1- Union of LC and UC Thought that LC needed to be ruled by an English majority 2- More democratic government Believed Britain should have less power and the people living in the colonies should have more power to govern themselves 3- Assimilate the Canadiens Durham thought that the Canadiens were without history, or culture and would be better off if they “became” English
  20. The Act of Union 1841: Based on Durhams’ report the Act of Union: Combined UC and LC into the Province of Canada Created a legislative council that the Governor appointed Created an assembly with an equal number of representatives from Canada East and Canada West Made English the official language of the Province of Canada The Act of Union tried to limit the power of Canadiens and attempted to have them assimilate.
  21. Government in Province of Canada
  22. Who Belonged? British descendants (Eng) American Loyalists (Eng) Canadiens (Fr) First Nations
  23. Pressures the First Nations faced in the 1840s being pushed off the land by the British Lack of food and resources The Mississauga people had to stop moving with the seasons and establish permanent settlements Britain wanted the people to move to Manitoulin Island- an island where no food would grow and the people would surely die 1847- the Mississauga people decided to move to land offered to them by the Haudenosaunee people at Grand River
  24. LaFontaine-Baldwin Alliance Two politicians who joined together LaFontaine- from Canada East (French) Baldwin – from Canada West (English) Wanted a more democratic government, but not a complete break from Britain French became recognized as an official language in the assembly Established the University Laval (Quebec City) and University of Toronto The Rebellion Losses Bill sought compensation for people who lost things in the rebellions. It was passed, but many wanted it overturned (cancelled) by the Governor- Lord Elgin. He allowed the Bill to pass, and it proved that the Province of Canada truly had a democratic government- by the “people, for the people”