Download
chapter 14 animals of the pelagic environment n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment

Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment

692 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition

  2. Pelagic organisms • Organisms that live in the pelagic environment: • Live suspended within the water column • Can float or swim • Have adaptations that allow them to stay above the ocean floor

  3. Staying above the ocean floor • Adaptations for staying above the ocean floor: • Rigid gas containers • Swim bladder • Ability to float Swim bladder Figure 14-2 Gas containers in cephalopods Figure 14-1

  4. Microscopic floating organisms: Radiolarians • Radiolarians produce a hard test composed of silica • Tests have projections to increase surface area Figure 14-3

  5. Microscopic floating organisms: Foraminifers • Foraminifers produce a hard test composed of calcium carbonate • Test is segmented or chambered Figure 14-4

  6. Microscopic floating organisms: Copepods • Copepods have a hard exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed legs • Relatives of shrimp, crabs, and lobsters Figure 14-5

  7. Macroscopic floating organisms: Krill • Krill are related to copepods but are larger in size • Abundant in Antarctic waters, where they are a favorite food of the largest whales Figure 14-6

  8. Macroscopic floating organisms: Coelenterates • Coelenterates are soft-bodied organisms including: • Siphonophores (Portuguese man-of war) • Scyphozoans (jellyfish) Figure 14-7a

  9. Swimming organisms (nekton) • Larger pelagic organisms can swim against currents and often migrate long distances • Nektonic organisms include: • Squid • Fish • Marine mammals

  10. Squid • Squid are invertebrates that swim by taking water into their body cavity and forcing it out through their siphon Figure 14-8

  11. Fish: Swimming motions and fins Figure 14-9

  12. Fish: Adaptations • Feeding styles: Lungers versus cruisers • Lungers sit and wait for prey to come close by • Cruisers actively seek prey • Cold-blooded versus warm-blooded • Most fish are cold-blooded • A few active fish are warm-blooded • Many fish school to avoid predators

  13. Fish: Deep-water nekton • Adaptations of deep-sea fish: • Good sensory devices • Bioluminescence • Large, sharp teeth • Large mouths and expandable bodies • Hinged jaws Figure 14-11

  14. Marine mammals • Characteristics of marine mammals: • Warm-blooded • Breathe air • Have hair (or fur) • Bear live young • Females have mammary glands that produce milk for their young

  15. Marine mammals: Order Carnivora • All members of order Carnivora have prominent canine teeth • Includes: • Sea otters • Polar bears • Pinnipeds (flipper-footed) • Walrus • Seals • Sea lions/fur seals California sea lions Figure 14-17c

  16. Differences between seals and sea lions/fur seals • Seals: • Lack ear flaps • Have small front flippers • Have claws • Cannot rotate hind flippers beneath themselves Figure 14-18

  17. Marine mammals: Order Sirenia • Sirenian characteristics: • Large body size • Sparse hair all over body • Vegetarians • Toenails (on manatees only) • Includes: • Manatees • Dugongs

  18. Marine mammals: Order Cetacea • Cetacean characteristics: • Blowholes on top of skull • Skull telescoped (streamlined shape) • Very few hairs • Includes: • Whales, dolphins, and porpoises

  19. Marine mammals: Order Cetacea Figure 14-20

  20. Two suborders of order Cetacea • Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales) • Echolocate (send sound through water) • Includes killer whale, sperm whale, dolphins, porpoises, and many others • Suborder Mysticeti (baleen whales) • Have rows of baleen plates instead of teeth • Includes blue whale, finback whale, humpback whale, gray whale, and many others

  21. Differences between dolphins and porpoises • Dolphins have: • An elongated snout (rostrum) • A sickle-shaped (falcate) dorsal fin • Teeth that end in points Killer whale jawbone Figure 14-22

  22. Generation of Odontoceti echolocation clicks Figure 14-23

  23. Odontoceti echolocation • Sound is bounced off objects to determine: • Size • Shape • Distance • Internal structure Figure 14-24

  24. Mysticeti: The baleen whales • Mysticeti whales have baleen instead of teeth • Baleen plates: • Hang as parallel rows from the upper jaw • Are made of keratin • Are used as a strainer to capture zooplankton • Allows baleen whales to eat krill and small fish by the ton

  25. Baleen Figure 14-25

  26. Types of baleen whales • Baleen whales include three families: • Gray whale (a bottom-feeder with short baleen) • Rorqual whales (medium-sized baleen) • Balaenopterids (blue whales, finback whales, and other large whales ) • Megapterids (humpback whales) • Right whales (surface skimmers with long baleen)

  27. An example of migration: Gray whales • Gray whales undertake the longest annual migration of any mammal: • Spend wintertime in birthing and breeding lagoons in Mexico • Spend summertime feeding in highly productive Arctic waters Figure 14-27

  28. End of Chapter 14 Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition