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1. Load Flow Solution of Radial Distribution Networks • Necessity of The separate load flow for Distribution system: • Most of the time conventional load flow methods can not be applied to distribution systems due to following reasons: • Distribution Systems are unbalanced and in certain sections carry only single or two phases. Three phase representation is required. • Distribution systems have lines/cables with high R/X ratio. Thus decoupling assumptions are not valid. • Most of the systems are radial in nature having single in-feed. Systems having multiple in-feed or ultimately operated as radial systems. AKM/Distribution/Load-Flow

2. Backward & Forward Propagation Method • In general all the methods used for a radial system works as backward-forward fashion. • Starts with some assumed voltages at each bus, except the source node. • In the backward propagation, adds all the load currents and downstream branch currents (computed at the assumed voltages) to compute current in the upstream branch. • Starting from the source node, in the forward propagation, updates the bus voltages utilizing the branch currents computed in the backward propagation. • Backward-forward propagation continues till voltages at all the buses converge within pre-specified tolerance. AKM/Distribution/Load-Flow

3. Methodology-I • A simple and powerful method for load flow solution of radial distribution network. • The method is based on computation of • Bus-Injection to Branch-Current Matrix • Branch-Current to Bus-Voltage Matrix • The BIBC matrix is responsible for the variation between the bus current injection and branch current, • And the BCBV matrix is responsible for the variation between the branch current and bus voltage. Let’s consider an example AKM/Distribution/Load-Flow