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Fermented Plants Products. Ali Raza Anser. Fruits Cereals Leaf and root vegitable Legumes Oilseeds These are all used for the production of fermented foods. Why fermentation? Improve digestibility Nutritional value Texture Flavour . Detailed Discussion . Bread
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Fruits • Cereals • Leaf and root vegitable • Legumes • Oilseeds These are all used for the production of fermented foods.
Why fermentation? • Improve digestibility • Nutritional value • Texture • Flavour
Detailed Discussion • Bread • Sauerkraut Production • Soya Bean Fermentation • Coffee • Cocoa • Tea
Bread Production • A History of 4000 Years • Yeast • Purpose: • Generate Carbon dioxide • Add flavor, alcohol, acid, chemical modified Gluten to promote the expansion of dough.
Wheat and several related cereal grains are used. • Contain Gluten protein. • Gluten Function • Final flavor of the bread • Dough making • Elastic properties to the dough • Dough trap CO2 and rise in volume • Baking • Bread protein is denatured and along with starch it forms the open crumb texture.
Bread dough contains more than 20% rye flour which must be acidified to produce acceptable bread. • Amylase Activity stops (Acidification). • Acidification can be done by adding citric acid or by sour dough fermentation.
Sauerkraut Production • Wilted shredded Cabbage • Mix with 2-3% salt to reduce the activity of water • Inhibition of Gram negative bacteria. • Starter culture of lactic cid bacteria are added (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostocmesenteroids). • Fermentation occurs and lasts for 20-30 days at 18-20 C. • Final lactic acid levels reach 1.5% v/v.
Modern commercial fermentation • Fiber glass or concrete tanks are used • Capacity 100 tones. • Traditional process • Natural Micro flora is used. • E.g. Sauerkraut
Soya Bean Fermentation • Substituted for dairy fermented products in South east Asia. • Different products like • Miso • Tempeh • Soya sauces
Involves the fermentation of cooked whole or dehulled soya beans by Rhizopus species. • soy sauce are used as colouring agents and flavouring as well. • Manufacturing involves three different stages. • Koji • it is solid substrate, aerobic fermentation of cooked soya beans. • It is also made by steamed defatted soya flakes, with addition of rice and wheat flour.
The temperature is 25-30 Celsius and it is processed in 2-3 days. • Moromi • It involves the fermentation of the liquid slurry and it is anaerobic fermentation that results from the fermentation of brine to koji. • The activity of microbe acidify and prevent spoilage.. • Along with this they perform alcoholic fermentation and produce additional flavour compounds. • The product is traditionally made in 6-9 months.
Coffee, Cocoa and tea fermentation Coffee • Bean is either obtain by dry or wet process. • Wet gives better beans. • It involves better action of indigenous bacteria and filamentous fungi. • The pulpy material that surrounds the bean is removed by the action of enzymes. • Then it is subjected to lactic acid fermentation.
cocoa • Has same microbial activity as coffee. • But this is more important comparatively. • At first we observe alcoholic fermentation. • Followed by activity of lactic acid bacteria. • Finally acetic acid bacteria does its duty and converts it into alcohol and acetic acid.
Tea • No action of micro organisms is there. • Action of enzymes are involved. • Breaks the leaves and eliminate moisture content. • To give a dry product that we refer to as tea.