Let’s practice note taking using the 40/60 note taking method. Fold your paper with 40/60%. Write the keywords down on the 40% side of the paper, leaving enough space between to add notes. On the 60% side of the paper, go back and add notes.
Keywords • Indus River Civilization • Harappan Civilization • Area today • Major cities • Mohenjo-Daro
Look at the physical map of Southern Asia. Where do you think ancient civilizations may have been located? Why?
If you said river valleys you are correct. Why would ancient civilizations settle along these river banks?
Indus River Civilization also called Harappan Civilization Developed in the Indus River Valley Area of what is today Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.
3000 BCE to 1500 BCE It existed at about the same time as the Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations. • Review … • Where was the Sumerian civilization located? • What does BCE stand for?
Two major cities – Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa • Mohenjo-Daro – • Means “Mound of the dead” • biggest settlement found in valley • More than 35,000 people lived there
Keywords • Mohenjo-Daro • Script • Destroyed and rebuilt • End
Mohenjo-Daro • Pictographic type script • Over 4000 different characters • however, has yet to be deciphered • Destroyed and rebuilt 7 times • each time new cities were built on top of the old ones – • possibly destroyed by flooding of the Indus – unlike the annual flooding of the Nile River the Indus River had unpredictable flooding
Ended around 1700 BC – • unknown causes Based on your knowledge of other ancient civilizations, what do you think possible causes were?
Ended around 1700 BC – • unknown causes but theories include … • Change of course of river which supported civilization • Climate change – severe drought and rivers dried up • Conquered and destroyed by invaders
As we look at this ancient city, let’s try to find evidence of a civilization. Can you remember what are the four elements of a civilization? • Surplus of food • Division of labor • Organized government or religion • Writing system
Evidence of an advanced society: • Planned layout of city based on grid system • Broad avenues with narrower streets • Must have had a centralized authority to plan such cities. Variety of buildings built of baked mud and sun-dried bricks.
Sophisticated houses with many rooms – some 2 stories high. Houses included spaces indicating a place for some type of doors and windows. Advanced drainage systems - narrow drains can be found in the streets. Drains were built with a slight slope to allow dirty water to drain away from the city. Some drains had covers, just like ours today. Most houses had wells to get fresh water.
Public bath – evidence of tar indicates there was a layer of tar to keep the water from leaking. Also evidence of underground room with a type of “furnace” – believed to have been used to heat the water in the public bath.
These were seals. Most depict some type of animal. Archaeologists believe only the wealthy would own a seal. Believed to be seals because many impressions have been found on other objects such as pottery.
This intricate piece of jewelry indicates very skilled craftsmen – most likely a used as a belt or necklace and probably belonged to a person of great wealth. Necklace made of gold and green stones, which were rare in this area. Therefore, probably a very rich person wore this necklace.
Summarize • List evidences of advanced civilization Share notes with partner
Keywords Then came the Aryans … • Aryans • Migrated • Language • Belief
Aryans • People who migrated from southern Russia • The time of their arrival suggests they had something to do with the downfall of the Harappan civilization • Spoke the language of Sanskrit • Improved weapons and the introduction of the horse enabled them to rule northern India • Together with the Harappan people these two people created a new culture • Strong belief that people are NOT equal What type of social system do you think this belief led to?
Then we see the beginning of a new religion! Do you know what it might be? Hinduism
Keywords • Hinduism • Vedas • Karma • Reincarnation • Caste system • Ganges River
Hinduism • No founder … rather combination of Aryan and Harappan beliefs • Regarded as world’s oldest organized religion • Based on certain Aryan practices – chanting of hymns • For a long time passed down through oral tradition
Eventually written down and became part of the Vedas (Book of Knowledge) The Vedas is the oldest known scripture
Central ideas Karma and reincarnation Karma – idea that one’s actions determines what will happen after one’s death Reincarnation – after death, one’s soul is reborn into a different body
Caste – inherited social class …determines one’s job, marriage partner, and friends … influenced by Aryan’s belief that people are NOT created equal priests Warriors, princes Merchants, landowners, farmers Laborers, peasants, servants
4 major classes And then the Untouchables – inferior to the 4 major classes – did work that no one else would do – shunned by other classes priests Warriors, princes Merchants, landowners, farmers Laborers, peasants, servants
Caste System • Today – still prevalent, but government working to reduce
Did you know … The Aryans judged a man’s wealth based on the head of cattle he owned. Therefore, Aryans protected their cattle from harm. Do you know what this might have led to? The Hindus believe cows are sacred and do not eat their meat!
Winding 1560 miles from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean … the sacred Ganges River
Sacred to the Hindus – Known as Ganga Ma - Mother Ganges the river is considered as a goddess whose purity cleanses the faithful from their sins and aids the dead on their path toward heaven.
According to Hindu mythology … “The Ganges was once a river of heaven that flowed across the sky. Long ago, she agreed to fall to earth to aid a king named Bhagiratha. His ancestors had been burned to ash by the angry gaze of an ascetic they had disturbed during meditation. Only the purifying waters of Ganges, flowing over their ashes, could free them from the earth and raise them up to live in peace in heaven. However, the flow of the heavenly river might shatter the earth, so Lord Shiva caught Ganges in his hair as she cascaded down from heaven to the Himalyas. Ganges then followed Bhagiratha out of the mountains, across the plains to the sea, where she restored his dead ancestors and lifted them to paradise.” http://www.sacredland.org/world_sites_pages/Ganges.html
It is from this story comes the Hindu ritual of depositing the ashes of their dead into the Ganges. “Just as the Ganges brought to life the ashes of Bhagiratha’s ancestors, so all Hindus believe that if the ashes of their dead are deposited in the river, they will be ensured a smooth transition to the next life, or freed from the cycle of death and rebirth. Hindus may travel great distances to scatter the ashes of loved ones in the Ganges.” http://www.sacredland.org/world_sites_pages/Ganges.html
“Hindus also believe that the Ganges’ divine waters purify those who immerse themselves in her. In cities along the river, daily dips are an important ritual among the faithful.” Even sacred dips right along side cattle! http://www.sacredland.org/world_sites_pages/Ganges.html
Used as a burial site … bathing … laundry … dipping for spiritual cleansing – humans and cattle! What might the Ganges be like today? Polluted!
Then, with an Indian prince we see the beginning of another new religion. Buddhism
Keywords • Buddhism • Gautama • Influence • The Middle Way
Indian Prince - Siddhartha Gautama Siddhartha Gautama was an Indian prince born into wealth and luxury. One day he left his palace and walked among his people and for the first time saw sickness and poverty. He wanted to understand what caused human suffering. Therefore, he gave up everything, all pleasures and comforts. However, he was still not happy.
One day he sat down under a tree and vowed not to move until he understood. Without food for days he nearly died; however, soon he was enlightened. He understood that it is not wealth and luxury or poverty that brought happiness, rather it was the Middle Way. He began teaching others this Middle Way and soon they began calling him the Buddha, which means Enlightened One.
He taught that by putting aside your ego, you could escape the cycle of death and rebirth and reach Nirvana. The path to Nirvana could be found through meditation and karma.
Siddhartha Gautama teachings • Influenced by Hindu beliefs (such as Karma and reincarnation) • Rejected caste system • 4 Noble Truths and Eightfold path – The Middle Way Ponder… 1 – Why did Gautama keep some of the Hindu beliefs and reject others? 2 – Why would Buddhism be attractive to people, especially to people of India?
4 Noble Truths • Truth of suffering • Life is full of pain • Truth of Cause • Suffering comes from desire for possessions • Truth of Extinction • If people stop desiring possessions, they will no longer suffer • Truth of the Path • Eliminate the suffering step by step, thus – the eightfold path
Eightfold path • Knowing the truth • Trying to resist evil • Saying nothing to hurt others • Respecting life, what is right (morality), and property • Holding a job that does not injure others • Trying to free one’s mind of evil • Controlling one’s feelings and thoughts • Practicing proper forms of concentration
A stupa is a monument shaped in the form of the sitting Buddha. It's a place of devotion and prayer. These sacred sites are scattered across India, Nepal, and Tibet as well as South East Asian countries.