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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2021, P-2022 PowerPoint Presentation
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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2021, P-2022

Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2021, P-2022

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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2021, P-2022

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  1. Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2021, P-2022 Scanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics

  2. Scanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics

  3. Scanning • Scanning is the process of investigating, examining, or checking by systematic search • The scanner uses a systematic eye movement pattern • Most commonly used eye movement pattern involves moving the eyes and pausing every few degrees – this is known as “fixation”and should cover about 10 degrees a second

  4. Vision • For central vision to be effective, the eye must be focused properly • When you are not actively focusing, your focal point will be about 30 feet out • Peripheral vision is not as sharp, but can be effective if you concentrate (especially at night) • For example: with central vision you may see an object one mile (5000 feet) away, but peripheral vision could only pick up the object 500 feet away

  5. Vision Physiology • The maximum visual acuity is a circle 10° in diameter around a fixation point. This is the area where “concentrated looking” takes place. • All else constitutes peripheral vision • A fist at arms length approximates the area of central vision • Most effective looking straight ahead (otherwise nose is in the way) • 180 degrees of lateral binocular vision • 160 degrees vertical range 10 degrees

  6. Vision Physiology (Continued) • At night • Dark adaptation requires 30 minutes • Use off-center vision • Fewer scans • Rest between scans • Lighting conditions • Shadows

  7. Practicing a Line of Scan

  8. Scanning

  9. Effects of Vision & Motion

  10. Scanning Range • The distance from an aircraft at which a scanner has a good chance to sight the search object • Don’t confuse with “search visibility” range • Distance at which an object the size of a car can be seen and recognized • CAP rarely credits a search visibility greater than three or four nm • Debris is usually not as large as a car and may not be recognizable, especially from an aircraft going 100 mph. • Therefore, scanning range may be less than but never greater than the search visibility

  11. Scanning Range Factors

  12. Surface coverage scanning from the air (no flight motion) Scanning Technique Farther Fixation area 3 • Follow a routine pattern • Cover area systematically • Pause to “fix” on a point every 3° to 4° • When scanning… • Stop at each fixation point long enough to focus clearly (about 1/3 second) • Successive central vision areas should overlap slightly 2 1 Focus points First Fixation Area Nearer the Airplane

  13. Effect of flight path • Movement of the aircraft across the ground can adversely affect coverage

  14. Scanning from RIGHT REAR Window 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 Scanning Range 4 3 2 1 Direction of Flight AircraftGroundTrack 1000’ AGL ( 1/2 - 1 mile ) 500’ AGL (1/4 - 1/2 mile)

  15. Scanning from the LEFT REAR WINDOW 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Scanning Range 5 4 3 Direction of Flight 2 1 1000’ AGL ( 1/2 - 1 mile ) Aircraft Ground Track 500’ AGL (1/4 - 1/2 mile)

  16. Diagonal Scanning Pattern

  17. Diagonal pattern surface coverage

  18. Vertical Scanning Pattern • Less effective • Use only from a rear seat position • Typically used by one scanner if there are two on the same side of the aircraft • Provides good coverage of the surface near the search aircraft

  19. Vertical Scanning PatternSurface Coverage

  20. Putting It Together in the Aircraft

  21. QUESTIONS?

  22. Scanning Range • For a 500 Ft AGL search, expect scanning range to be ¼ to ½ mile. • At 1000 Ft AGL, expect ½ to 1 mile scanning range.

  23. Sighting DistanceAverage Visibility ObjectDistance Person in life jacket (open water or moderate seas) 1/2 mile Person in small life raft (open water or moderate seas) 3/4 mile Person in open meadow within wooded area 1/2 mile or less Crash in wooded area 1/2 mile Crash on desert or open plain 2 miles Person on desert or open plain 1 mile or less Vehicle in open area 2 miles or less

  24. Scanning Range Factors • Atmospheric conditions • Position of sun • Clouds and shadows • Terrain and ground cover • Surface conditions (like snow) • Cleanliness of window • Altitude • Condition of scanner • Use of binoculars • Use of sunglasses

  25. Lighting Conditions • Use of binoculars can rapidly bring on eye fatigue and lead to disorientation and even airsickness. • Use only for brief periods to check sightings and for detailed viewings of an assessment area or target. • Looking through a camera or camcorder viewfinder for extended periods can be equally as discomforting. Take breaks. • Sunglasses reduce eye fatigue and glare, but can: • lead to reduced retinal image. • lead to reduced color discrimination. • Don’t wear sunglasses under reduced visibility conditions!

  26. Fighting Fatigue • Change positions every 30 minutes if the size of the aircraft permits • Switch sides of the aircraft (rear seat) • Find a comfortable scanning position • Ensure aircraft windows are clean • Keep inside lighting low to reduce reflections • Only use binoculars to check sightings • Focus on close objects periodically

  27. Atmospheric and Lighting Conditions FOG

  28. Atmospheric and Lighting Conditions CLOUD SHADOWS

  29. Atmospheric and Lighting Conditions DUST STORM

  30. Atmospheric and Lighting Conditions HAZE

  31. Atmospheric and Lighting Conditions CLOUDS & HAZE

  32. Atmospheric and Lighting Conditions HAIL (AVOID IT)

  33. Visual Clues • Light colored or shiny objects • Smoke, fire, blackened areas • Disturbed or discolored foliage • Fresh bare earth • Breaks in cultivated field patterns • Disturbances in water and snow (discoloration, oil slick, debris) • Birds and animals • False clues • Signals and messages (fires, groups of 3’s, mirrors, panels, etc.)

  34. Visual Clues • Don’t expect to find anything that looks like an aircraft • Most wrecks look like discarded trash • There is also a lot of discarded trash out there • If there is any doubt, check it out

  35. Directing the Pilot • Clock Position • High, Low, Level • Maneuvers • Straight ahead • Stop turn • Small Corrections • 5 degrees right • 10 degrees left bank • External References 12 1 11 2 10 3 9 4 8 5 7 6

  36. Wreckage Patterns • Hole in the ground • Cork screw or auger • Creaming or smear • The four winds • Hedge-trimming • Splash

  37. Scanning sloping terrain

  38. Scanning sloping terrain

  39. Side of mountain

  40. Side of mountain

  41. Forest

  42. Forest (hole in ground)

  43. Side of hill (blackened)

  44. Side of hill

  45. Side of hill

  46. Side of hill

  47. Side of mountain

  48. Straight down into trees

  49. Ultra-light near Ely MN in 2006

  50. Creaming or Smear