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Periodic Properties

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  1. SPS4a Determine the trends of the following: • Number of valence electrons • Types of ions formed by representative elements • Location of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids • Phases at room temperature Periodic Properties SPS4b Use the Periodic Table to predict the above properties for the representative elements.

  2. Groups • The group number is the number assigned to a verticalcolumn on the periodic table. • Another name for group is a Family • There are 18 groups in the periodic table. • Groups 1, 2, 13 – 18 are representative

  3. Periods • 1. The period number is the number assigned to a horizontalrow on the periodic table. • 2. The number of protons increase from left to right across a period. • 3. This number is the atomic number. • The period number indicates how many energy levels (rings) each atom has.

  4. METALS • shiny-luster • solids (except Hg) • malleable • ductile (stretch to wire) • conduct heat & electricity • most elements are metals

  5. NONMETALS • solids, liquids & gases • luster-dull • brittle • poor conductors • upper-right hand corner (& H)

  6. Metalliods • along stairstepline – between B & Al (Al is not a metalloid!) • classified as nonmetals but conduct heat and electricity under certain conditions • some metal & nonmetal properties

  7. Alkali Metals Periodic Family Names Alkaline Earth Metals Nobl e gases Halogens (D- Block) <---Transition Metals-----------> (F—block) <-----------------Inner transition------------------>

  8. Group 1 - Alkali Metals • soft, shiny • reacts violently with water • VERY reactive, one valence e- to lose; • cation

  9. Alkali metals • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

  10. Group 2 - Alkaline Earth Metals • 2 valence e-; cation • reactive

  11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

  12. Transition Metals • Groups 3-12 • Ions change – changes properties • NOT REPRESENTATIVE!

  13. Halogens • -Group 17 • -1 ions, highly reactive • 7 valence e-

  14. Noble Gases • Group 18 • unreactive, 8 valence e- • exist as single atoms, inert

  15. Phases of Elements • 1. Liquids: You must know: Hg and Br • 2. Gases: Don’t memorize, but you need to know their general location. Gases are towards the right side of the periodic table. • 3. Solids: All metals, except Hg - mercury

  16. Vocabulary to know • Valence electron: electrons in the outermost energy level (ring) • Cation: (+) charged ion • Anion: (-) charged ion

  17. Why ions form... • To get as close to an “octet” as possible

  18. Octet Rule • Atoms tend to share, gain or lose electrons to have a set of eight (8) electrons in their outer shell.

  19. Metals • Most elements are metals. • 88 elements to the left of the stair step line are metals or metal like elements.

  20. Metals • Shiny, silvery, solids

  21. Mercury, Hg

  22. Ions are …. • Charged atom or group of atoms

  23. Ions are formed…. • By loss or gain of electrons

  24. Positive ions • Cations

  25. Negative ions • anions