Periodic Properties - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Periodic Properties

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  1. Periodic Properties

  2. Valence Electrons • Valence electrons – Electrons in the outer energy level that can be lost, gained, or shared (connected to the group #)

  3. Atomic Radii • The atomic radius is a measure of the size of an atom (½ distance betw 2 nuclei). • The larger the radius, the larger is the atom. • http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/atomic4.swf • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YS71PbwUPx8

  4. Atomic Radii

  5. Atomic Radii • Radii decrease across a period because the nucleus gets a larger positive charge • Radii increase down a group because the nucleus gets larger • Which is larger and why? Which is the smallest? Li, O, C, or F • Largest: Li Smallest: F • What about Be, Mg, Ca, or Sr? • Largest: Sr Smallest: Be

  6. Ionization Energy • Ion – an atom that has a positive or negative charge • Ionization – process that results in forming an ion • Ionization energy (IE) – energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom (energy needed to make a positive charge)

  7. Ionization Energy A + Energy A+ + e- • IE increases across a period because the nuclear charge increases (more electrons in the orbitals) • IE decreases down a group because it is easier to remove e- from higher energy levels

  8. Electron Affinity • Electron Affinity (EA) – energy needed to add an electron to a neutral atom (opposite of IE). A + e- A- + energy

  9. Electron Affinity • EA decreases across periods (get more negative) • EA decreases down groups as nuclear charge increases. ***There are many exceptions to this rule!!!

  10. Ionic Radii • Cation – positive ion (decrease in atomic radii) • Anion – negative ion (increase in atomic radii) • Ionic radii decrease across periods because the electron cloud shrinks • Ionic radii increase down groups as energy levels increase

  11. Electronegativity • Electronegativity -- the ability of an atom to attract electrons • Electronegativities increase across a period and decrease down groups (but there are exceptions!) **Fluorine is the most electronegative atom!!

  12. The Best Way to Remember…. • Just know all the trends that surround Fluorine, and work your way down or across! • F – most electronegative, highest IE, lowest EA, small atomic and ionic radii

  13. All Periodic Trends