Download
animal nutrition mc donald greehalgh and warner 1987 animal nutrition longman n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Animal Nutrition Mc Donald, Greehalgh and Warner. 1987. Animal Nutrition. Longman PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Animal Nutrition Mc Donald, Greehalgh and Warner. 1987. Animal Nutrition. Longman

Animal Nutrition Mc Donald, Greehalgh and Warner. 1987. Animal Nutrition. Longman

327 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Animal Nutrition Mc Donald, Greehalgh and Warner. 1987. Animal Nutrition. Longman

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Animal NutritionMc Donald, Greehalgh and Warner. 1987. Animal Nutrition. Longman تغذيه دام

  2. Remember… • Water • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Protein • Minerals • Vitamins

  3. WATER (H20)

  4. Water (H2O) • Overlook when formulating rations—assumed animals have access to good quality water • EXTREMELY IMPORTANT • Cheapest & most abundant nutrient • May lose 100% of body fat, 50% of body protein and live • Lose 10% of body water, dehydration occurs and may result in death

  5. Water (H2O) • 65-85% of body weight at birth • 45-60% of body weight at maturity • Many tissues contain 70-90% water

  6. Functions of Water • Transport of nutrients and excretions • Chemical reactions and solvent properties • Body temperature regulation • Aids in cell shape maintenance • Lubricates and cushions joints and organs

  7. Sources of Water • Drinking water • Water in feed • Metabolic water

  8. Sources of Water 1. Drinking • Pigs = 1.5-3 gal/hd/day • Sheep = 1-3 gal/hd/day • Cattle = 10-14 gal/hd/day • Horses = 10-14 gal/hd/day • Poultry = 2 parts water:1 part feed

  9. Sources of Water 2. Water contained in feeds • Highly variable in feedstuffs • Grains = 9-30% water • Forages • Hay <5% • Silage 65-75% • Lush young grass >90%

  10. Calculating Water Content of Feedstuffs • 100 lbs of silage (65% moisture) contains how much actual feed? • 100 lbs * .65 = 65 lbs of water • 100 lbs – 65 lbs = 35 lbs of feed

  11. Sources of Water • Metabolic Water - Results from the oxidation of organic nutrients in the tissues • 1 g of carbohydrates = .6 g of water • 1 g of protein = .4 g of water • 1 g of fat = 1 g of water • May account for 5-10% of total water intake

  12. Sources of Water Loss • Urine • Feces • Lungs • Skin • Milk

  13. Factors Affecting Water Intake • Temperature & humidity • Dietary factors • High moisture feeds reduce drinking • Fiber, DM intake, salt, and protein increase drinking • Lactating vs dry • Water quality

  14. Water Absorption • Readily absorbed • Monogastrics/Ruminants: Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Large Intestine • Ruminants: Rumen and Omasum

  15. Dry Matter (DM)Bahan Kering (BK)

  16. DM in the feeds or diets • DM content in feeds or diets • How to analyze ? • How to calculate ? • What is its effect on feed quality (nutrient content and preservation)? • What kind of nutrients contained in the feeds or diets? • Remember !!!! • DM content and Feed Price? • DM content and Feed Handling?

  17. Feeds or diets DM for animal • DM content in feeds or diets for animal • Function ? • How to calculate ?

  18. CARBOHYDRATES (CHO)

  19. Carbohydrates (CHO) • Primary component found in livestock feeds • 70% of DM of forages • 80% of DM of grains • Serve as source of energy or bulk (fiber) in the diet • Not ESSENTIAL nutrients • Synthesized by animals

  20. Carbohydrates (CHO) • Definition: Hydrates of carbon formed by combining CO2 and H2O • photosynthesis

  21. Types of CHO • Monosaccharides: 1 sugar molecule • Glucose • Primary sugar body uses for fuel • Fructose • Found in honey (75%), fruits, and cane sugar • Sweetest sugar • Present in low concentrations in animal feedstuffs

  22. Monosaccharide (Glucose)

  23. Types of CHO • Disaccharides: 2 sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond • Lactose (galactose + glucose) • Milk sugar • Sucrose (fructose + glucose) • Table sugar • Present in higher concentrations in animal feedstuffs

  24. Disaccharide (Sucrose)

  25. Types of CHO • Oligosaccharides: group of CHO consisting of 2-10 sugar groups • Present in feed ingredients • Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin): present Jerusalem artichokes • Galactooligosaccharides: present in soybeans

  26. Types of CHO • Oligosaccharides • Not hydrolytically digested or digested by the action of mammalian enzymes • Fermented by beneficial bacteria present in GIT • “Functional Feed Ingredient”: foodstuffs which, apart from their normal nutritional value, are said to help promote or sustain healthiness • PREBIOTIC

  27. Soybean Oligosaccharides

  28. Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)

  29. Types of CHO • Polysaccharides: many sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond • Starch: storage form in plants • Cellulose: most abundant CHO in nature • Hemicellulose: principle component of plant cell wall

  30. Polysaccharides

  31. Function of CHO • Source of energy • Source of heat • Building block for other nutrients

  32. Sources of CHO • Cereal Grains • Most feedstuffs of plant origin are high in CHO content

  33. CHO Digestion • Dietary CHO must be converted to be absorbed • Simple sugars (monosaccharides) • How? • Action of amylase enzyme • Salivary amylase (swine, poultry) • Intestinal amylase • Action of other disaccharidases • Produced by mucosal lining of duodenum

  34. CHO Digestion • Mammals do not produce enzymes necessary to digest oligosaccharides and celluloses (fibrous feedstuffs) • Digestion occurs as result of bacterial fermentation • Where? • Rumen • Large Intestine (cecum and colon)

  35. CHO Digestion • Fermentation yields: • CO2 • H2O • Heat (heat increment) • Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) or also referred to as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)

  36. VFA Production • Serve as 70 - 80% of energy requirement in ruminants • VFA’s produced in rumen • Serve as ~16% of Maintenance energy requirement in swine • VFA’s produced in large intestine

  37. VFAs • Acetate •  with higher roughage levels • Produced by cellulolytic & hemicellulolytic bacteria

  38. VFAs • Propionate •  with higher concentrate levels •  Feed efficiency • Ionophores increase propionate production

  39. VFAs • Butyrate • Energy source for rumen wall growth • Papillae growth • Energy source for colonic cell growth • monogastrics

  40. VFAs • Lactate(not volatile) • Anaerobic conditions •  rumen and blood pH • Inhibits most microbial growth • Acidosis situation

  41. CHO Absorption • Once simple sugars are formed, they are absorbed rapidly by small intestine • Then monosaccharides diffuse into the portal vein which transports them to sites of metabolism

  42. VFA Absorption • Absorbed through the rumen wall or large intestine mucosa • Provide energy source to the animal

  43. LIPIDS

  44. Lipids • Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents • Dense energy source: • 1 g fat = 9.45 kcal GE • 1 g protein = 4.5 kcal GE • 1 g CHO = 4.2 kcal GE • Thus, fat produces 2.25 times the energy than CHO

  45. Lipids • Triglyceride: primary storage form of lipids • Saturated fatty acids: contain no double bonds • Unsaturated fatty acids: contain 1 or more double bonds

  46. Lipids

  47. Lipids • Fats = solid at room temp = animal origin • saturated • Oils = liquid at room temp = plant origin • unsaturated

  48. Functions of Lipids • Dietary energy supply • Source of insulation & protection • Source of essential fatty acids (EFA) • Carrier for fat soluble vitamins

  49. Lipids • Essential fatty acids (EFA): Those fatty acids that an animal requires, but which it cannot synthesize in adequate amounts to meet the animal’s need • Linoleic C18:2 • Linolenic C18:3 • Arachidonic C20:4

  50. EFA • Physiological needs: • Cell membrane structure • Synthesis of prostaglandins which control blood pressure and smooth muscle contractions • Deficiency: • Scaly, flaky skin (Poor feather growth) • Poor growth