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Mechanics

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  1. Mechanics Punctuation Marks & Commas(Coordinating Conjunctions)

  2. Punctuation marks • To use punctuation marks, a sentence must have an independent clause. • Independent clause: a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and that can stand alone. • E.g. New Year (subject) is celebrated (verb) every year. [independent clause] New Year is celebrated. [independent clause] New Year is celebrated, and they have a party. [independent clause] • E.g. When New Year is celebrated in every year. [dependent clause] (we do not know what happens when New Year is celebrated.) Celebrating a New Year eve. [dependent clause] (Celebrating is not a verb, it’s a gerund or participle)

  3. Using commas: Coordinating Conjunctions • Are words that establish a relationship between two independent clauses. • There are 7 : FANBOYS • F – for • A – and • N – nor • B – but • O – or • Y – yet • S – so

  4. E.g. • They know a lot about nutrition, yet they eat unhealthy food. • If it doesn’t have a subject and verb, do not use comma. • Annie got up late and forgot to call her mother on Mother’s day. • However, it is not a good academic style of using the coordinating conjunctions for begin the sentence. • Non – academic style • We were going to go to the movie. But, we didn’t know what time it started. • Academic style • We were going to go to the movie. However,we didn’t know what time it started. • However is a transitional word.

  5. subordinating conjunctions • after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while, etc) • No comma is used after subordinating conjunctions. • A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause • E.g. Ram went swimming (independent clause)although it was raining.(dependent clause)

  6. Mechanics Comma splices & run-on sentences

  7. Comma Splices • Is an error that occurs when a comma by itself is used between two independent clauses. • A comma is correct between two independent clauses, but only when it is followed by a coordinating conjunction. • E.g. : My dad hung a bird feeder in the backyard, he loves to watch the birds eat from it. (error)

  8. 4 ways to correct comma splices: • Put a period in the place of the comma and capitalize the first word of the next sentence. • My dad hung a bird feeder in the backyard. He loves to watch the birds eat from it. • Put a semicolon in the place of the comma. • My dad hung a bird feeder in the backyard;he loves to watch the birds eat from it. • Insert a coordinating conjunction. • My dad hung a bird feeder in the backyard, and he loves to watch the birds eat from it. • Change one of the clauses into a dependent clause by starting it with a subordinating conjunction • Since my dad hung a bird feeder in the backyard, he loves to watch the birds eat from it.

  9. Run-on Sentences • Two or more independent clauses follow each other without any punctuation. • E.g. : Cutting down the rain forests leads to the extinction of plants and animals their habitats are destroyed. (error)

  10. 3 common ways to correct run-on sentences • Make two separate sentences. • Cutting down the rain forests leads to the extinction of plants and animals. Their habitats are destroyed. • Add extra words. • When their habitats are destroyed due to cutting down the rain forests, many plants and animals become extinct. • Add a subordinating conjunction. • Cutting down the rain forests leads to the extinction of plants and animals because their habitats are destroyed.