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Tenth Amendment

Tenth Amendment

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Tenth Amendment

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  1. Tenth Amendment • The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

  2. State Constitution State courts, Governor, State Legislature • State Board of Education • State Superintendent • State Office of Education • District School Board • District Superintendent • District Office • Principals and Schools

  3. State Board of Education Role (3/4s of states are appointed by the governor) • Issuing and revoking teaching licenses • Establishing the length of the school year • Publishing standards for approving and accrediting schools • Developing and implementing uniform systems for gathering education data, such as standardized achievement test scores, enrollment trends, and demographics

  4. State Office of Education • Responsible for implementing state board of education policies on a day-to-day basis • Creates list of state-approved textbooks • Establishes standards in different content areas • http://schools.utah.gov

  5. School District How many in Utah? • Administrative unit legally responsible for the education of children within a geographic boundary • Governed by a local school board of lay citizens responsible for setting policies within the district • Approximately 14,000 school districts in U.S.; an average of 280 per state • Number of school districts in a state ranges from 1 (Hawaii) to 1,040 (Texas) http://nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol_4/4_3/3_4_t2.asp#Table-7

  6. District School Board • Responsible for establishing educational policies within a district • Lay members elected in local elections • Members often do not reflect the cultural and economic diversity within a district

  7. School District Superintendent • Implements policies established by local school board • Usually has an advanced degree in education • Sometimes conflicts with school board over implementation of policies

  8. Functions of the District Office • Ordering textbooks and supplies • Developing programs of study • Ordering, distributing, and analyzing standardized tests • Evaluating teachers and assisting those with difficulties

  9. Principal • Given the ultimate responsibility for the running of a school • Most important person in the district administrative structure, because the principal works directly with teachers and students

  10. Principal (continued) • Responsible for: • Teacher selection and evaluation • School-level curricular and instructional leadership • Community relations • Coordination of pupil services (counselors, school psychologists, etc.) • Monitoring of school budget • Ensuring school maintenance

  11. Finance • Finance Activity

  12. Whose responsibility is it to fund public education? • State Legislature • Income tax • Sales tax • Local Board of Education • Property taxes • School fees • Federal Government • Federal programs (federal taxes- personal, business)

  13. School Funding Sources • States contribute 49% of educational funds • Local governments contribute 43% of funds • Federal funds constitute 8% of educational monies • What about Utah? • http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/default/FngrFacts.pdf • http://www.schools.utah.gov/finance/

  14. State and Local Revenue Sources • State income tax • Sales tax • Building permits • Traffic fines • Property taxes based on home and real estate values

  15. Federal Funding of Education • Small proportion (8%), but large impact • Categorical grants target specific groups and designated purposes • Block grants provide states and districts funds with few restrictions (Reagan era)

  16. District Educational Expenditures • Largest percentage (61%) spent on instruction • Administration, instructional supports (student services, teacher professional development, curriculum development), and maintenance of physical plants each take 10% of education funding dollar. • Transportation (buses) and food services each take up 4% of districts’ budgets.

  17. Funding Inequalities • Because of differences in property taxes, wealthy districts spend more on education than poorer ones. • 23% more nationally • About twice as much within certain states • Legal issues surrounding funding inequalities determined by state laws and courts • Weighted student formula allocates funding to schools within a district based upon student and school needs.

  18. Site-Based Decision Making • Attempts to place increased responsibility for governance at the individual school level • Teachers generally feel excluded from decision-making loop. • Can also involve community lay members in school governance

  19. Different Forms of School Choice • Charter schools • Vouchers • Homeschooling

  20. Charter Schools • Alternative schools that are independently operated but publicly funded • Often target specific areas of the curriculum • Arts • Math and science • Foreign language • Uneven quality due to increased autonomy • Research suggests that student achievement is no better than regular public schools and sometimes worse. http://schools.utah.gov/charterschools/

  21. Vouchers • Vouchers are checks parents use to purchase educational services. • Use for private education, especially religious schools, is controversial. • State tuition tax credits, a variation on vouchers, provide tax cuts for parents of children attending private schools. • http://www.utahnsforpublicschools.org/ • http://www.choiceineducation.org/

  22. Homeschooling • While increasingly popular, accounts for only 2% of students. • Parental reasons vary. • Concerns about moral climate of schools (49%) • More positive social climate (15%) • Academic excellence (14%) • Specific needs of individual students (12%) • State laws regulating vary considerably. • http://www.uhea.org/

  23. Privatization • Takes a variety of forms • EMO (Education maintenance organization) runs and manages schools or entire district • Industry-operated school lunches and buses • Industry-related tech support • Arguments for • Businesslike efficiency of corporations • Competition makes publicly run schools more effective and efficient • Arguments against • Bottom line is the dollar—not children’s welfare • Unimpressive initial results with corporations like Edison

  24. School Choice and Cultural Minorities • Advocates claim that school choice provides cultural minority parents with alternatives to ineffective and unproductive local schools. • May result in increased segregation of students. • Education of parents about options and choices is crucial for future success.