WHAT IS BIO GAS? Biogas is a term that is used to refer to a type of gas that is produced from the biological breakdown of organic material in the absence of oxygen. It can be produced from organic wastes such as animal dung, dead plant or animal material and kitchen waste. It is mainly composed of methane, carbon dioxide and tiny amounts of hydrogen sulphide.
Much waste material of many kinds is produced by us in our day-to-day living. These waste products include excrement of humans and animals such as cows, horses, goats, pigs, and chickens, and garbage from the kitchen (vegetable waste, etc.).
Garbage and other waste rots, giving off bad smell, and making our living environment unpleasant. It can also be the cause of disease, and be a breeding place for many flies, mosquitoes, and other harmful insects. To maintain a clean, healthy environment in our surroundings, it is important to properly deal with this waste material.
When moisture and heat are added to these waste products into a container that keeps out air, they begin to rot, and a kind of gas is produced. This gas, called methane gas, produces a hot flame when burned. We can use this heat energy source as fuel and at the same time help keep our environment clean.
Methane gas burns easily and produces a hot flame, and can be used to boil water or cook. Methane gas itself is no smelling and tasteless and is lighter than air, but other gases are also produced along with the Methane gas. One of these, hydrogen sulfide, is a poisonous gas that smells like rotten eggs. This dissolves in water, so most of it can be filtered out by passing methane gas and hydrogen sulfide mixture through water, making the methane gas safe to use.
The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.
Using bio-methanisation technology all domestic bio waste including wastewater can be treated hygienically and biogas, a very good cooking fuel is produced. This helps to prevent the tendency to throw the waste materials in roads and public places. Generation of cooking gas at household level helps to overcome fuel crisis to a great extent.
Anybody can install domestic Bio waste treatment plants with a minimum investment. Local self governments should take much interest to provide financial assistance for domestic programmes. This helps the local bodies to save permanently the huge recurring expenses they have to incur for the collection and transportation of domestic waste to a centralized plant.
Components of the Bio-gas PlantThe major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.
INSTALLATION OF BIOGAS PLANT- MAJOR COMPONENTS 1] DIGESTER TANK A PVC tank of 50 litres or above (depending on the cooking gas you would expect to generate) is used as Digester Tank. Cut the top cover of the digester tank
2] GAS HOLDER You need another smaller tank which can fit inside the digester tank to hold the gas. Here, again remove the top of the tank.
3] PVC PIPES You need various sizes of PVC pipes 1] for feeding the kitchen waste 2] guide pipe for the gas holder 3] guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. 4] A small piece of pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry
While installing the biogas plant, initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.
Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve daily. Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane, and the rest carbon dioxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove.
QUANTITY OF GAS An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. There are bigger models which can be used for commercial purpose or for institutions where large quantity of waste is available.
SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY OF WET WASTE A Biogas plant needs to have some quantity of sustainable supply of food waste to feed the digester. This could be hotel waste, flour waste, all types of fruit/vegetable wastes etc. A 1000 litrecapacity digester needs an assured supply of about 5 kg of waste daily. A family produces about half a kg of kitchen waste. Hence, an arrangement has to be made with the neighboring families, hotels etc. However it will be easier to get sufficient wet waste in the institutions like orphanages, old age homes, homes of destitutes, hospitals, schools/colleges attached with canteens, seminaries, religious houses etc.
FINANCES A five Kg feed capacity biogas plant cost INR 12,000/- approximately
If 4% of us engage ourselves in this activity, the total soft bio waste is wiped off. • 50% cooking fuel need of 20% household is met our of biogas
Advantages and Benefits of Biogas • Provides a non-polluting and • renewable source of energy. • Efficient way of energy • conversion (saves fuelwood). • Saves women and children from • drudgery of collection and carrying of • firewood, exposure to smoke in the kitchen, and time consumed for cooking and cleaning of utensils. • Produces enriched organic manure, which can supplement or even replace chemical fertilizers. • Leads to improvement in the environment, and sanitation and hygiene. • Provides a source for decentralized power generation……
Leads to employment generation in the rural areas. • Household wastes and bio-wastes can be disposed of usefully and in a healthy manner. • The technology is cheaper and much simpler than those for other bio-fuels, and it is ideal for small scale application. • Dilute waste materials (2-10% solids) can be used as in feed materials. • Any biodegradable matter can • be used as substrate. • Anaerobic digestion inactivates • pathogens and parasites, and is • quite effective in reducing the • incidence of water borne • diseases…..
Environmental benefits on a global scale: Biogas plants significantly lower the greenhouse effects on the earth’s atmosphere. The plants lower methane emissions by entrapping the harmful gas and using it as fuel. • IMPACT AT NATIONAL LEVEL • 0.3 Million ton of bio waste per day is gainfully utilized to meet 50% cooking fuel needs of 48 million households!
WASTE TO ENERGY CONSULTANTS (List not exhaustive - courtesy: Internet) • Scalene Greenergy Corporation Ltd, Tel: +91 (0)80 2546 77 88, Fax: +91 (0)80 2549 55 66, email@example.com • NarendraJindal -firstname.lastname@example.org – 9869461942 • Dr Emmanuel D’Silva – Email - email@example.com • SqnLdr (Rtd) DevendraGoyal – tel- + 91-9845364203, email – firstname.lastname@example.org • EAI - Energy Alternatives India, Tel. + 91 90435 39679, Email : email@example.com • Synod Bioscience (P) Ltd, Ph: 0484 4070404, Mob: +919995994291, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org • EnvoProjects, Mobile : 9899300371, email: email@example.com • Renewable Energy and Environmental Service Enterprise(REESE), Email: firstname.lastname@example.org • Vivekananda Kendra, phone: 04652 246296 and 04652 -247126. cell. 9486942769 ; e-mail - email@example.com • E-mail is - svnot@ yahoo .com, Mobile 0 99 47 06 48 62 • BARC Tel : 091-022-5505337/559389, Fax : 091-022-5505151, Email : firstname.lastname@example.org • ASPES SOLAR ,# 532, NEW DELHI, CONTACT – 9899424681 • APPROPRIATE RURAL TECHNOLOGY INDIA, Email - email@example.com • BIOTECH CORPORATE OFFICE, Phone : +91-471-2331909, 2321909, 2332179, Fax :-91-471-2332179, Email – firstname.lastname@example.org, Mobile: +91-99897 99892 • ArjunEnergy Corporation, Ph: +91 427 2417121/51/91. +91 94433 75577, email@example.com
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